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Depending on the volume, quality and complexity of available evidence, the reviews undertaken have ranged from rigorous systematic reviews to more general literature reviews and mapping exercises. The findings of the review pointed to the need for a shift from predominant focus on individual behavioural change to broader approaches addressing multiple levels of the social ecology, for greater attention to preventive versus corrective measures; for greater normative and longer-term approaches and greater attention and investment in research and evaluation on the role of C4D in addressing violence against children.

The results of the review are informing the development of a toolkit aimed at building capacities for design of evidence-based C4D interventions addressing violence against children. The evidence review conducted in collaboration with BRAC International, identified that C4D activities in the Education sector have not been afforded sufficient priority or core resources, and are not being delivered at scale.

Both in its own work and through advocacy with partners using programming briefs summarizing the evidence, UNICEF has promoted implementation of the recommendations and several countries eg. Nigeria and Mozambique have initiated the development of comprehensive C4D in strategies. The findings from the review and a set of country case studies are being used to inform a global C4D in Education Guide currently under development.

This work was supplemented by the development of a Monitoring and Evaluation Guide for Participatory Theatre Guide and a Participatory Video Guide which are currently being used by communities as important platforms for dialogue, analysis and action. The use of the evidence and tools were rolled out in Uganda, South Sudan and Cte dIvoire to inform Theories of Change to address identified conflict drivers and to support cross-sectoral C4D strategies and platforms for strengthening community resilience and peacebuilding.

Similar to other processes, it will be the forerunner to the development of a programming guide. The review seeks to identify how best to leverage adolescent and young peoples digital media practices in order to engage them in processes of social and behavioural change, as well as monitoring and reporting efforts related to development agendas. The review is part of ongoing efforts to conceptualize, define, and measure participation within the current digital context.

Findings from this review also will inform UNICEFs programme activities and focus on youth and adolescent engagement and participation with a specific focus on social and behaviour change. This engagement will be evaluated against UNICEFs Conceptual Framework for Measuring Adolescent Participation, which was developed in in collaboration with practitioners in the field and academic experts.

This framework defines participation as meaningful when adolescents acquire a sense of self-efficacy, make decisions, engage on issues that affect their lives, and are taken seriously by adult duty bearers. Health workers in Yemen share knowledge and address misperceptions related to immunization. Data have already been collected to establish a baseline for the new SP, and these indicators will provide the ability for an accurate global picture of the status and progress of C4D performance across all regions.

With a near per cent response rate i. The target is for the end of the SP in is 80 per cent of countries meeting the quality benchmarks. The evaluation also looked at other relevant aspects including C4D contributions to improved programming.

However, it also identified challenges and recommendations that have become key areas of attention. Many of these are also relevant to the broader C4D field. The integration of C4D into strategies, implementation plans and reporting frameworks has been uneven, and approaches inconsistent.

This can be addressed with improved availability and application of quality C4D standards; greater focus on the collection and analysis of behavioural and social data; mainstreaming of C4D within country programme strategy notes and incorporation of new global standard C4D indicators within results frameworks.

Integration of C4D is also impeded when systematic allocation of C4D-specific funding is overlooked, which can be countered by both increased evidence generation and the routine involvement of C4D specialists in programme and proposal design. Evidence generation will also contribute to improved monitoring and evaluability, as will a stronger emphasis on defined pathways of change to key programme results and greater investments in commissioning robust outcome evaluations of C4D-supported programmes.

Looking beyond UNICEF , C4D capacity in-country can be improved with a more systematic and targeted approach to capacity development of government and staff. The recommendation has been for HQ development of a refreshed C4D Capacity Development framework to serve as a single reference document on key C4D competencies; provision of more tailored internal capacity-building in C4D to build on the strong efforts to date; and development of a wider range of technical offerings for learning on application of C4D across UNICEF programme priority areas.

Improved interagency coordination will reduce transaction costs for communities, build trust and reduce response costs that arise from vertical sector and agency-focused approaches. Continued institutionalization of C4D.

With senior C4D advisors now in place in all seven of its regional offices, UNICEF is now better equipped to support the C4D capacity of country offices and advocate for its integration in country office programmes. With this strengthened regional capacity and additional programme guidance and tools from C4D HQ, increased focus will be placed on positioning C4D within country programme strategy notes, results frameworks and programme budgets.

Promote quality C4D design and implementation through provision and application of minimum quality standards, including more systematic application of community engagement approaches. To ensure a more comprehensive suite of C4D guidance across sectors, priority will be placed on the provision of technical guidance similar to that provided in the health and humanitarian sectors. The agenda will be developed and expanded to cover additional areas e.

Strengthen quality monitoring tools and systems. While efforts will be made to institutionalize tracking of key performance indicators on quality C4D implementation, greater focus will simultaneously be placed on indicators and systems to measure C4D contribution to results. At country level, greater efforts will be made to develop tools and mechanisms for institutionalizing C4D indicators within national data systems, including the use of real time data systems.

Foreground C4D within emergency response and humanitarian action, and put people at the core in humanitarian action. Further refinements will be made in the operationalization of the interagency common services platform for Communication and Community Engagement for humanitarian action as well as the Social Science Platform for generating social data in humanitarian settings. Greater efforts will also be placed on clearer protocols and systems Building on the gains in institutional strengthening, expanded partnerships, increased resources and accumulation of country level experiences such as those illustrated in this report the following are some of the key priorities for strengthening C4D in and beyond: 1.

This will be attempted by continuing efforts at strengthening the evidence base for C4D and reinforcing the organizations role as inter-sectoral connector for children through coalition building amongst a range of partners to address specific behaviours and social norms. After the recent establishment of several global C4D coordination mechanisms as outlined previously, attention will be turned to further operationalization and strengthening of UNICEFs role to contribute to more efficient and effective responses, accessibility of global programming standards, models, standards and tools, common advocacy and joint resource mobilization.

UNICEFs role as co-convener of the Summit alongside four development partners, the professional exchange of over 1, practitioners, government, academics, researchers, donors and private sectors and the knowledge products from this event will help advance the latest thinking and practices in the field. Through the consolidation of this global community of practice, UNICEF will further collective advocacy for improved practice with emphasis on the important role that voice and participation should play in accelerating results for children.

Increased focus on capacity building of local partners. The focus will continue on increasing access through online courses and further decentralization of training through strategic regional centres which will enable UNICEF to support expanded capacity building of partners across the globe. Efforts will be made to expand the range of learning courses to cover both generic and specialized thematic areas 20 UNICEF Report on Communication for Development C4D Global Progress and Country Level Highlights Across Programme Areas for Accountability to Affected Populations to centre and empower communities, adolescents and youth to engage directly in emergency response and recovery by privileging their insights and applying their feedback.

Support innovation at scale New partnerships will be established to support innovative use of behavioural insights, human-centred design approaches and development of strategic cross-cutting, multimedia, and inter-personal C4D platforms that can facilitate new ways of communicating and engaging across the range of programmatic priorities for children, across the life cycle, to support priorities defined at country and community levels.

Increased efforts will be made to leverage technology such as mHealth mobile health , Data Must Speak in Education, and U- Report to identify new and more effective interventions for achieving desired social and behavioural change. Develop a common framework for social norm measurement. Social norms cut across multiple programmatic domains, including health and nutrition, education, gender, inclusion and harmful traditional practices. As such, it is an area where C4D can leverage its multisectoral advantage to achieve scale.

More rigorous programme monitoring and research is required to understand the ways in which social norms develop, evolve and adapt to changes brought on by various social, political and cultural dynamics.

Promoting and supporting adolescent and youth engagement. A key consideration of Communication for Development is the placement of children at the centre of the programme, allowing children and adolescents to act as the primary change makers on causes that affect them, and effectively contribute to the achievement of the SDGs.

C4D can support this by positioning adolescent and youth engagement as the pivot of a global social movement around social accountability for equity. The platforms for engagement are myriad, including digital platforms such as U- Report , participatory theatre, intergenerational community dialogues, community and childrens radio, participatory video, school clubs, TV edu-tainment and child-participatory research. Other notable initiatives have been implemented through faith-based youth groups, technology for development and sports for development.

The results in this report highlight examples of the diversity and substance of C4D interventions across UNICEFs programmatic work, with concrete evidence of how they are leading to improved results for children.

While ensuring equal access to social services and accelerating progress in the different sectors remains critical, the strengthening of cross-cutting areas as well as linkages across sectors were key priorities for the SP Examples of C4Ds contribution to cross-cutting areas are distributed throughout the report , while in keeping with the structure of the ARRs, there are separate chapters dedicated to Gender and Humanitarian Action.

While C4D activities may be reported in relation to specific sectors, many are often cross-sectoral. For example, gender-biased cultural norms may impede girls education while they condone gender-based violence; cultural taboos around the discussion of toilets may contribute to both malnutrition and the risk of an outbreak of cholera.

As such, several of the C4D activities described in this report may fit just as easily within one sector as another. The examples demonstrate how C4D platforms are central to the coordinated delivery of communication content and engagement with different influencer and participant groups that can effect change. The examples show how the platforms support UNICEFs cross-sectoral agenda by bringing together the range of thematic areas required by the programmatic priorities for children as defined at the national or local level.

As reflected in the report , the central aim of C4D is to develop long-term partnerships and capacities in order to ensure sustainable strategically-selected, locally-customized, responsive and equity-focused behaviour and social change interventions.

Guiuan is among the areas worst affected by Typhoon Haiyan. UNICEF is working to re-establish the cold chain to deliver vaccines to more than 1 million children in typhoon-affected areas. Rama, a girl of preschool age, saw her life turned upside down when her family was forced by the conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic to leave their home nearly two years ago. Since then, she and her mother and two younger siblings have moved every few weeks.

Her father has been missing this entire time. Yet despite so much uncertainty, Rama was immunized against polio at a local clinic. She is among the 2. But as the conflict wears on, there are more and more children like Rama. Gwendolyn was born a week before Typhoon Haiyan flattened Tacloban, Philippines.

The storm surge washed away her familys home and they took refuge in a shelter with some families, where they were able to get water from the municipal system that the water district authority, UNICEF and other partners had repaired. The family also received a hygiene kit with bath and laundry soap, sanitary napkins, toothbrushes and toothpaste. Jhana, Gwendolyns mother, felt fortunate that, for the first time since the storm, she could bathe her newborn. Life-saving interventions like these, crucial to warding off deadly diseases, became paramount in the wake of the typhoon, which left millions in desperate need.

In the Central African Republic, month-old Dieu-Donn sat on a thin hospital bed watching his baby sister laugh. He is more than a year older than his sister, but barely bigger. In their country, access to nutritious food and medical care has been severely limited since the conflict there began in late Dieu-Donn is among the more than 13, children under 5 years of age who had received treatment for severe acute malnutrition in the Central African Republic as of early November But security constraints continue to limit access to many more thousands like him.

In we saw no respite from the scale of crises impacting the lives of children like Rama, Gwendolyn and Dieu-Donn. Humanitarian Action for Children highlights the situation of millions of children like these, the support required to meet their needs and the results made possible by the response of UNICEF and partners.

We have also worked closely with partners to emphasize our responses in education and child protection, to avoid losing a generation of Syrian children to trauma and lack of skills. In the Philippines, our immediate efforts restored water access for more than , people in Tacloban within a week of the typhoon. Across the globe, more than 2. Globally, we continued to strengthen our ability to respond more quickly and efficiently to large-scale emergencies like these, in important part, by simplifying our response procedures.

In alone, these procedures were activated three times, in January for Syria, in November for the Philippines, and in December for the Central African Republic. We also enhanced our support to complex emergencies, such as those in Mali and the Central African Republic. Humanitarian action, which has always been core to UNICEFs mandate, is more prominent than ever in our new strategic plan for We know that effective humanitarian action requires not only meeting peoples immediate needs today, but also strengthening their abilities to cope with future shocks, and investing in children to make them more resilient.

Humanitarian Action for Children HAC is UNICEFs global appeal, which highlights the challenges faced by children in humanitarian situations, the support required to help them survive and thrive, and the results that are possible in even the most difficult of circumstances. In recent years, the appeal has progressively moved online, where content can be updated regularly.

As part of UNICEFs ongoing efforts to make its systems more strategic and results-based, the online HAC presents individual humanitarian appeals based on needs, standards and targets, while showing what results have been achieved for children and women. Appeals and results are updated regularly, based on the Even as we continue to meet new challenges, we know we can do better.

So, we are critically reviewing UNICEFs role in humanitarian action to meet emerging issues and take advantage of new opportunities. UNICEFs humanitarian action remains centred on results, as evidenced by our country-level work and our strengthened monitoring systems. These results are made possible by the generous support of the donors and National Committees that have continued to support UNICEFs humanitarian action, even as needs increased worldwide.

Predictable and flexible funding supports programmes like the ones being accessed by Gwendolyn, Rama and Dieu-Donn, and enables us to act quickly wherever and whenever crises occur. This support enables children like Rama to find protection against disease. It means girls like Gwendolyn will survive their first weeks of life during a typhoon.

And it helps a boy like Dieu-Donn recover from malnutrition and make the most of his childhood. Children like these are not objects of our pity. Rather, they and their families deserve our utmost respect. They and their families are survivors, fighting -- heroically -- against the odds to stay alive and rebuild their lives. We are not offering these children charity.

We are by their sides offering support in their brave struggle so that, one day, they can grow into strong, healthy and educated adults who can contribute fully to their own childrens future and the future of their countries. Visit the HAC website for more details and information: unicef. Figure 1. Haiti Worlds largest cholera epidemic affected over , and killed 8, people. Mali An estimated , people are displaced in and outside the country, with returnees to the North in need of basic social services, including schools and health care.

Sahel Severe acute malnutrition affects 1. Horn of Africa By October , two years after the regional nutrition crisis, more than , under-five children with severe acute malnutrition were admitted for treatment. Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Chronic malnutrition remains a concern, with 28 per cent of children under 5 affected. Afghanistan With a 30 per cent increase in the number of attacks on children in , childrens situation remains a major concern.

Myanmar Violence and displacement 81, and , internally displaced persons in the states of Kachin and Rakhine, respectively hinder democratic reforms. Yemen Thirteen million Yemenis lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, with over 1 million children under 5 acutely malnourished. Syrian Arab Republic and sub-region With 5. Central African Republic Atrocities against children continue, with nearly half of the population in urgent need of assistance.

South Sudan Renewed violence has displaced hundreds of thousands, risking the worlds youngest nation and its future generations of its continued peace and security. Democratic Republic of the Congo Chronic instability includes 2. Angola 1. This map is stylized and not to scale. All figures come from online chapters unless noted. The map below highlights the global humanitarian situation at the end of and some of the major crises affecting children and their families.

In some contexts, achievements were constrained by limited resources, including across sectors; inadequate humanitarian access; insecurity and a challenging operating environment. See country funding levels on page Further reporting on and throughout including country-specific indicators is available on the respective country web pages on unicef. Results may differ from targets due to lack of resources per sector; changes in situation, needs and caseloads; inadequate humanitarian access or insecurity; or simply results surpassing initial targets or not being achieved.

More information can be found in the respective country pages and situation reports at unicef. Top sources of humanitarian funds, Figure 3. Respective chapters for the Syrian Arab Republic and Syrian refugees include more recent income. All funding figures have been rounded. Funding figures represent total contribution amounts, including applicable recovery costs, as issued to country offices.

Income includes some resources from development assistance budget lines for the Syrian Arab Republic crisis. Global support is the amount of global income received and unallocated as of 31 October , and does not include amounts allocated to country offices. Funding also varied by sector, with limited or late funds for education or child protection in countries such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Mauritania.

Thematic funding, which has fewer restrictions than other resources and allows UNICEF the flexibility to respond where needs are greatest, accounted for only 5 per cent of humanitarian income. Ahmed lives with his brother and parents in a small room amongst five other families in the Domiz refugee camp in Northern Iraq. In partnership with national governments, civil society and other United Nations agencies, UNICEF delivers results for children in some of the most challenging environments in the world.

Leveraging existing partnerships and programmes, UNICEF teams are present on the ground before, during and after crises. The architecture that supports country-level humanitarian action is provided by UNICEFs seven regional offices and various headquarters divisions. These offices provide the core infrastructure to support field preparedness and response in order to save lives and protect rights; systematically reduce vulnerability to disasters and conflicts; and support sector and cluster coordination and humanitarian partnerships.

What does the global architecture cost? Over 98 per cent of requirements will directly support field responses to diverse contexts such as cholera in Haiti, conflict in South Sudan and malnutrition in Mauritania. Why invest in global architecture? UNICEFs headquarters divisions across the world and regional offices work to strengthen organizational systems and capacity based on knowledge gained from past experiences and engagement with the wider humanitarian system.

Examples include the development of corporate emergency activation procedures for large-scale, Level 3 emergencies, drawing on prior experience from contexts like Haiti and Pakistan. The organization also outlined steps in to enhance its response to Level 2 emergencies that require enhanced support, including procedures for simplification and fast-tracking human resource deployments and partnership agreements.

Headquarters and regional office work in also focused on strengthening organizational capacity for results-based monitoring in humanitarian situations. The organization also co-leads the child protection and gender-based violence areas of responsibility within the protection cluster. Global cluster capacity, including for information management, is ready to be deployed 7 This does not include additional requirements in regional chapters of Humanitarian Action for Children Headquarters provides overall strategic direction and guidance, and is responsible for strategic planning, advocacy and oversight for the entire organization.

Headquarters also leads the develop- ment of UNICEFs global perspective, based on experiences and contributions from all parts of the organization, to inform planning, policy and guidelines for effective humanitarian action. Dedicated emergency focal points in each area of the Programme Division develop policies, guidance and tools, provide direct field support and technical assistance remotely or on the ground, and advocate for and promote evidence-based interventions for the field.

The organization is also prioritizing and investing in strengthening the resilience of children, communities and systems to multiple shocks and stresses. The supply function is centralized in Copenhagen, with supply hubs located in Dubai, Panama and Shanghai for the rapid mobilization and shipment of essential life-saving supplies during the first 24 to 72 hours of a crisis.

A dedicated emergency human resources unit coordinates surge deployment and recruitment for emergency countries, alongside global standby partnerships. Focal points in evaluation, communication, resource mobilization, finance and administration, and information and communication technology provide further support.

Regional offices provide guidance, support, oversight and coordination to country offices to prepare for and respond to emergencies, including leadership and representation, strategic planning and policy development, and performance monitoring and administration.

Dedicated technical and cross-sector advisers provide direct programme and operational support, with increased capacity in emergency-prone regions. This includes strengthening country-level capacity, providing quality assurance and facilitating surge deployment. Regional office capacity is also critical during significant regional emergencies, as seen in the crises in the Syrian Arab Republic and throughout West and Central Africa.

This capacity can enable the nationally led adoption of standards for protecting children in emergencies. Regional offices also support country-level including inter-agency capacity for preparedness, response and disaster risk reduction. Looking ahead, UNICEF is also critically reviewing its role in humanitarian action to meet the challenges of the next five years amid diverse country contexts and an evolving environment of humanitarian needs and capacities.

Working with partners and national authorities, we delivered safe water where systems and infrastructure had been destroyed; reunified separated children with their families; and, within the first 24 hours, sent essential medical supplies into hospitals. This includes procuring and supplying personal protective equipment, diagnostics, therapeutics and COVID vaccines through the COVAX Facility, to ensure all countries have a fair and equitable shot at recovery.

Away from the headlines, UNICEF has been protecting children, keeping them learning, and supporting their health and nutrition across worsening and complex crises in the Sahel, Venezuela, Somalia, and Sudan navigating complex political situations with a resolute focus on reaching every child.

I am immensely proud of this work. From anger, to hope, to action But to keep this hope alive, we need a radical transformation in humanitarian action. Four priorities are clear. First, to avert a lost generation, we urgently require timely, predictable, and flexible funding to save childrens lives, preserve their dignity and protect their futures.

Through 52 appeals aiming to reach over million children, UNICEFs Humanitarian Action for Children sets out an ambitious agenda to respond to this unprecedented time. We need your help to realize this. Second, we must sharpen our focus on preventing and preparing for the next disaster. From pre-arranged finance to anticipatory action, we need a global effort to mobilize resources well before devastating and irreversible damage to children occur. The Second World War touched every corner of the globe, leaving devastation and destruction in its wake.

Even in December , more than a year after the war ended, millions of children were still suffering daily deprivations. Our mandate: to provide emergency aid, without discrimination, to all children in need. This month, we mark our 75th anniversary in similarly troubling circumstances. We are confronting a child rights emergency. Rising poverty and inequality, climate change and conflict, and the impact of COVID are undoing decades of progress.

And, as is so often the case, it is children and young people who are the hardest hit. What is at stake? The pandemic has upended child health and well-being. Rates of routine immunization have fallen to levels not seen since and it is children in humanitarian settings who are missing out.

We are slipping back on nutrition, too: The number of children suffering from wasting, the most life-threatening form of malnutrition, could increase by 9 million this year. And driven by conflict and man-made crises famine, which should be consigned to history, looms again. Meanwhile, the worlds worst humanitarian crises for children have deteriorated further in Afghanistan, Yemen, Syria, and Burkina Faso.

And escalating conflicts in Ethiopia, Myanmar, and Mozambique have pushed millions more children and their communities to the brink of survival. Attacks on children, including on civilian infrastructure critical for their survival, are continuing at an alarming rate. Last year, the United Nations verified a total of 23, grave violations against children in conflict or 72 violations a day.

Last month, Yemen passed a devastating milestone: Since the escalation of the conflict, 10, children have been killed or maimed. Climate change is worsening the scale, frequency, and intensity of emergencies. The last 10 years were the hottest on record, and the number of climate-related disasters has tripled in the last 30 years.

Today, over million children live in areas where water vulnerability is high or extremely high. Madagascar is confronting a catastrophic food crisis a direct result of drought caused by climate change. Through all this, we are seeing more children on the move than ever before.

Last year, more than 82 million people worldwide were forcibly displaced. A shocking 42 per cent were children. Disasters were among the biggest drivers. To take one example, a deteriorating conflict in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique forced nearly half a million children from their homes. The response we are seeing does not match the scale of these crises. From Ethiopia to Cameroon and from Syria to Myanmar, we continue to witness flagrant disregard for child rights in conflict and a yawning accountability gap for those responsible for grave violations.

Across the world, child refugees are being denied the care and compassion they deserve. Yet I remain hopeful. Because of the dedication, commitment and courage of my amazing colleagues who are confronting this reality around the world and who remain in place to deliver for children and their communities. Because of the courage and resilience of these children and their communities.

And because of the support from our global and national partners. Seventy-five years on, they are ensuring UNICEF can still step up to serve all children and their communities in need. We worked tirelessly to keep health Foreword Henrietta H. It is their future.

So, from peace efforts, to climate negotiations, to decisions about where humanitarian funding goes, children and young people must be at the table. Finally, while UNICEF is needed now as much as it was 75 years ago, we must constantly adapt to ensure we can respond to the evolving humanitarian challenges of today and tomorrow.

I am heartened that, with the support of our partners, we are rolling out major transformations recommended by our Humanitarian review based on feedback from communities we serve, as well as our staff and partners in the field. UNICEF will take bold and concrete action to boost humanitarian leadership, skills, preparedness, and technical expertise.

We will become a more agile, cost effective, innovative and strategic organization centered around constant learning and growth and equipped to respond to the emergencies of tomorrow. Looking ahead We believe just as firmly now as we did 75 years ago that we can guarantee the next generation a better life than the last.

Join us in achieving this ambition for every child. The impacts of armed conflict and other forms of violence are particularly devastating for children. Attacks on schools and medical facilities prevent them from accessing education and interrupt vital health services.

Humanitarian crises always increase the risk of gender-based violence GBV , placing women and girls at risk. Population displacements are expected to persist, and internally displaced people IDPs , returnees and host communities continue to be the most vulnerable.

Mid, an estimated 35 million 42 per cent of the The interruption of basic services, combined with the numerous consequences that COVID has had on childrens lives, is expected to lead to increased child morbidity and mortality in and beyond. The pandemic hit marginalized and poor households heavily, making it difficult for them to meet their most basic needs. Climate change and natural disasters continue to cause more extreme weather events and exacerbate existing vulnerabilities, particularly in countries beset by violence.

In , UNICEF and its partners will continue to provide a principled, timely, predictable and efficient humanitarian response, in line with international norms and standards. IN CrIsIsChildrenHaiti The countrys most vulnerable people are feeling the combined impact of natural hazard-related disasters, persistent political and socioeconomic crisis, gang-related insecurity, forced returns and internal displacement, and the COVID pandemic.

An estimated 2. The earthquakes impacts and recent returns of migrants have exacerbated these vulnerabilities. Venezuela and migration flow children on the move As the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela endures its seventh consecutive year of economic contraction aggravated by hyperinflation, political tensions, sanctions and increasing violence all intensified by COVID the toll on society and on children worsens.

Schools have been partially closed, preventing 6. Additionally, over 5. Central sahel crisis Burkina Faso, mali and Niger The consequences of climate change, insecurity, forced displacement, lack of access to basic services and the socioeconomic impacts of the COVID pandemic have led to some Nigeria There are approximately Of these, over 2.

Alarming levels of food insecurity and malnutrition from protracted conflict in the north-east, and a worsening situation from counterattack against armed groups in the north-west, are being compounded by epidemic outbreaks such as yellow fever, cholera and malaria, worsening already dire conditions. Failed rains and prolonged drought in the south of the island have left nearly 1. An estimated , children under 5 years of age will suffer from acute malnutrition, while , will be severely malnourished.

Children on the move, particularly the 10, children who are unaccompanied and separated, are highly vulnerable and require urgent care and protection. Protracted humanitarian settings in Eastern Africa somalia and south sudan In somalia, the conflict continues to disrupt the lives of children and increase their vulnerability to protection violations.

In total, 7. In south sudan, years of prolonged conflict, chronic vulnerabilities and weak essential services are taking their toll. In , more than 8. The volatile situation has heightened the underlying vulnerabilities in the country, where Child protection risks remain high with continued insecurity and attacks against civilians, and families are resorting to child marriage and child labor to cope with the socioeconomic deterioration.

Over 10 million school-aged children need education assistance, in addition to the 4. In a context where 8 out of every 10 Afghans drink unsafe water, severe drought further limits the access to safe water. Outbreaks of measles, dengue fever and acute watery diarrhoea continue to affect children and overwhelm struggling health services.

Almost 23 million people will experience acute food insecurity from November until March and 1. Internally, there are 3 million IdPs in camps awaiting resolution to current and past conflict and solutions spanning the peace, development and humanitarian spheres. Sudan remains a junction for irregular migration and must reckon with both new and old internal complexities. IN CrIsIsChildren mozambiqueThe humanitarian situation in Mozambique is critical, particularly in Cabo Delgado, where nearly , people, including , children, have been displaced and need humanitarian assistance.

In this province, , people are at risk of food insecurity IPC crisis level 3 or above , and COVID continues to deepen vulnerabilities of the affected population, particularly in health, education and nutrition. Persisting violence, inter-community tensions, acute malnutrition and major epidemic outbreaks continue to affect childrens lives and well-being.

Over 5. GBV remains a key concern, with women and children at risk of sexual exploitation and abuse and few avenues for reporting and seeking assistance. Nearly half 47 per cent of health zones are identified in nutritional emergency, with a total of 2. Escalating conflict and violence with severe human rights violations, the COVID pandemic, propensity to climate-related disasters, rising poverty and collapsing public services have left an estimated These inter-related risks are threatening child survival, development, and well-being across the country.

CameroonHumanitarian needs in Cameroon are driven by armed conflict, inter-community violence, an influx of refugees from neighboring countries, seasonal flooding, and disease outbreaks including cholera and measles all compounded by the ongoing COVID pandemic. In urgent need of humanitarian assistance are 4. Northern Ethiopia crisisSince military clashes erupted in northern Ethiopia, widespread fighting continues and humanitarian needs continue to increase. Conflict escalation in several areas, climatic shocks and disease outbreaks remain the main drivers of displacement, food insecurity and protection risks in Ethiopia.

Over Central African republic CAr Election-related violence that erupted in December has had a devastating effect on civilians, particularly children, forcing hundreds of thousands of people to flee. The end of September saw , people displaced, a level not seen since the peak of the crisis in Including the , CAR refugees abroad, one in four Central Africans is now displaced by conflict.

Increased violence, combined with the health and socioeconomic impacts of the COVID pandemic, have increased the number of people projected to need humanitarian assistance in estimated at 3. Protracted conflicts in the middle East the syrian Arab republic, syrian refugees in the sub-region and Yemen The Middle East region remains the epicentre of two of the worlds most protracted and severe emergencies. Children are bearing the brunt of the year-old conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic, where the number of children needing humanitarian assistance has increased by 27 per cent from to , with 6.

Yemen remains the worlds worst humanitarian crisis. Protracted armed conflict, widespread economic collapse and a breakdown in national systems and services have left 70 per cent of the total population, including Further reporting , including country-specific indicators, is available in the respective country appeals at www. Humanitarian programming was adjusted to integrate COVID response in individual country and regional appeals reflecting the needs emanating from the pandemic.

Moreover, children were impacted by a rise in conflict and sociopolitical crises, as well as a surge in emergency needs due to climate change. However, the overall commitments for non-COVID related needs decreased in comparison to , reflecting a shifting of resource partners priorities and the wider economic implications of the COVID response.

Overall, the top 10 partners made up the majority of funding received in 77 per cent. Partners also rose to action with support when situations deteriorated, such as the escalating conflict in northern Ethiopia, the devastating earthquake aftermath in Haiti, and the crisis in Afghanistan. Of the funds received, 65 per cent went to 10 emergency appeals. The top recipients remain largely unchanged, but the share of total funding has decreased for some key emergencies, such as the Republic of Syria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq and South Sudan.

On the other hand, the nine most underfunded emergencies combined including Pakistan, Tajikistan and Libya accounted for only 2 per cent of total funding. Significant shortfalls in funding are preventing UNICEF and its partners from meeting childrens humanitarian needs, leaving many without critical support. The thematic funding indicates a positive direction towards more flexibility by current and new partners. Additionally, the regular resources contribute through allocations made via the Emergency Programme Fund loan mechanism, which supports acute emergencies by fast-tracking resources to affected countries within 48 hours of a crisis.

Of the funds spent to fund emergency programmes, almost 30 per cent went to local and national actors13 in partnership with UNICEF fulfilling Grand Bargain commitments in localization. Limited quality funding remains a significant concern for humanitarian responses in the field.

UNICEF will continue to explore opportunities for collective action and advocacy, as well as approaches to increasing the quality of funding including flexibility to implementing partners. UNICEF seeks to appeal to resource partners for continued strategic partnerships, including more flexible, timely and longer-term funding to address the needs of the most vulnerable children and their families.

UNICEF procures more than 2 billion doses of vaccines annually for routine immunization and outbreak response on behalf of nearly countries. In addition, UNICEFs work to support ACT-A also leverages our decades-long comparative advantage and experience in working with communities, governments, businesses, industry and other partners to shape markets and supply essential commodities, while strengthening systems and programmes.

In collaboration with the PAHO19 Revolving Fund, UNICEF is leading the procurement and delivery for 92 low- and middle-income countries, while also supporting procurement for more than 97 upper middle-income and high-income nations. UNICEF is also procuring and transporting immunization supplies such as syringes, safety boxes for their disposal, and cold chain equipment such as vaccine refrigerators.

Delivering products and services through a global network, including supply hubs across the world and UNICEF country offices that serve local programmes. Influencing markets to ensure appropriate products are available at an affordable price, with the right quality standards. Ensuring quality through a rigorous approach that incentivizes new manufacturers to make the investments needed to become compliant with good manufacturing practices and other requirements that correspond to international standards.

Creating sustainable supply chains to avoid disruptions in supply chains and to connect scalable solutions. Next page. Sold by: Amazon Services International, Inc. Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon.

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What is sro in forex Conflict escalation in several areas, climatic shocks and disease outbreaks remain the main drivers of displacement, food insecurity and protection risks in Ethiopia. Last year, the United Nations verified a total of 23, grave violations against children in conflict or 72 violations a day. What does the global architecture cost? Funding also varied opv negociar sector, with limited or late funds for education or child protection in countries such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Mauritania. In alone, for example, 48 field offices were supported to better mainstream C4D within programmes or to improve specific aspects of priority result areas. Through the consolidation of this global community of practice, UNICEF will further collective advocacy for improved practice with emphasis on the important role that voice and participation should play in accelerating results for children. It means girls like Gwendolyn will survive their first weeks of life during a typhoon.
Market neutral investing joseph nicholas pdf to excel We got answers for more countries, but we only report the results for 71 countries with more than 8 answers. For example, gender-biased cultural norms may impede girls education while they best forex indicators for mt4 gender-based violence; cultural taboos around the discussion of toilets may contribute to both malnutrition and the risk of an outbreak of cholera. Second, we must sharpen our focus on preventing and preparing for the next disaster. Despite challenges and constraints, sustained advocacy, political and financial commitment, and collaboration in resulted in achievements that need to be built upon and continued into The same factors caused the destruction or further degradation of homes, hospitals, schools, roads and other public and social infrastructure, services and networks, preventing millions of children from receiving treatment for illness, drinking safe water, going to school or even playing.
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