Trafficking in human and smuggling and transnational criminal networks tend to emerge in the aftermath of border closures. The majority of all migrant workers remain in Thailand due to border closures O. D Impa, Many are feared missing to the hands of human traffickers. The woes of the 70 million people displaced by war and social collapse Chan et al.
Their dense geographical proximity, overcrowded accommodations, lack of sanitation and hygiene facilities and lack of access to healthcare services in the host communities Mahmood, ; Reidy, put them in the most dangerous condition. More than a million Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh, for example, are terrified for their lives KarimIslam and Talukder, The refugee camps that house 3. This pandemic that knows no border has brought into focus the intersection of migration and public health policy.
The pandemic will surely change the domain of global migration, and so will the policies. The world has changed, so did the [im]migration policies. The governments of many receiving countries have been seen to make drastic changes in their migration policies. Immigrant receiving countries have swiftly made decisions on [im]migration policies to adjust to the current situation.
Enforcement of policies is already underway. For example, many countries are extending the stay permit for those third-country nationals who were already in the destination country. The European Commission had encouraged member states to treat seasonal workers as essential workers who should be allowed to travel.
Some countries have made strong use of migration and mobility policies supposedly for managing the outbreak of COVID Australia has announced that the government would only take care of the citizens, and all the foreigners holding temporary visas are advised to take care of their own expenses; if affected with COVID, otherwise they may leave the country. The US has issued an Order to prohibit entering asylum-seekers, which severely limits access to asylum in the US. Many of the US companies are set to lay off employees under H1B visas.
Many other companies are reconsidering their employee hiring and retention decisions. The UAE has suspended work visas and visa-on-arrival following the pandemic Landau, There is growing evidence that as many as million migrants chose irregular routes to migrate out because there are too few regular means through which they can travel Piyash, ; Ullah et al.
In the current scenario, the desperate migrants seek irregular means to migrate by using smugglers, traffickers and other illicit groups Legrain, Irregular migrants cross international boundaries without documentation or health checks. Some scholars and policymakers see a ray of hope out of this pandemic.
It is that the lockdown is making people stay home. This helps clean the environment. The deficiencies of health professionals might lead to job opportunities for asylum seekers and migrant populations. The Portuguese government, for example, is granting citizenship rights to all migrants and asylum seekers who have residency applications underway.
The move is intended to ensure that everybody who needs it has access to social security and health care while the country battles the spread of Coronavirus World Health Organization, b. Some industries in Europe, such as agriculture, currently fear further economic losses due to travel restrictions causing few migrants to come.
Other migrants are being considered to come to join the rescue effort. Initially, lockdown has been the best option for thwarting the spread of the virus due to the fact that nature if the virus was unknown to most scientists. The suddenness and the pervasiveness of the emergence of the virus transpired the flaws in managing this pandemic, no matter how resourceful the country is making every single individual vulnerable.
The migrant population in the host countries is already in a vulnerable situation for a myriad of reasons. This vulnerability has been exacerbated in the pandemic and triggered by government-imposed lockdowns Avato et al. Due to restrictions on mobility, migrants are losing their work, and hence they were getting indebted. As days pass by, the scenario is likely to worsen.
Cases of xenophobia, discrimination and stigmatization have been common. Issues of discrimination are prevalent where migrants are believed to be carriers of the virus. This is also the case for migrants who returned to their countries of origin and experienced stigma as they were viewed as the carriers of the virus. Migrant populations, including refugees, displaced persons and asylum seekers, have been caught up between health crisis and food crisis; between the uncertainty of job retention and desire to return home; between stay home to be safe and urgency to go out for survival.
Migrants and people living in crowded shelters and camps or camp-like settings face increasing health risks as COVID cases continue to emerge in their cramped living quarters, which often include overcrowding, inadequate sanitation, poor nutrition, and limited access to health care facilities. The respondents mentioned that public gatherings have been common in densely populated and democratic countries.
Some respondents said that respect for lockdown had got something to do with the political system the country is under Ullah, , a. However, leadership plays a great role in handling the pandemic. While the pandemic has dismantled the normalcy, we may assume some positive speculations. The economic slowdown as a result of the COVID implies less trade, less travel, less commerce and fewer emissions Jayaram, , which in turn contribute to a better natural climate, and the migrant population will have a great opportunity to revisit their future plans.
They had an opportunity to earn resilience. This pandemic could be a wake-up call for the policymakers. Calls are being ringed louder than before to beef up the health system so that they are ready to handle future catastrophes of any scale. Faraha Nawaz: Interviews, helping in drafting, reviewing the findings. Diotima Chattoraj: Literature search and literature review. Published online Feb 5. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVIDrelated research that is available on the COVID resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Almost all countries in the world have now enforced coronavirus-related travel restrictions and border shutdowns. Introduction: a new world and different realities The year is a lost year for all of us. Objectives and methodology The gravity of the pandemic has eclipsed the woes of about one billion migrant people.
Potential changes in migration policy This pandemic that knows no border has brought into focus the intersection of migration and public health policy. Conclusions Initially, lockdown has been the best option for thwarting the spread of the virus due to the fact that nature if the virus was unknown to most scientists.
References Abramsky S. Ahmed N. Routledge; London: An introduction to the geography of health. Social security regimes, global estimates, and good practices: The status of social protection for international migrants. World Development.
IMF officially declares global economic recession. April 4. Policy developments. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: A study of a family cluster. Ambivalent attachments: Shifting notions of home among displaced Sri Lankan Tamils. To die from hunger or the virus. Cultures of migration: The global nature of contemporary mobility. Coronavirus impact stalls imported beef supply chain in China.
March 25, April 08, European Economic Review. Coronavirus: Migrant worker who walked two days to get home now faces stigma, uncertain future. Retrieved from. Gosh I. Graham-Harrison E. Lockdowns around the world bring rise in domestic violence. Coronavirus Stokes fear among Venezuelan migrants in Latin America. Hopkins University J. JHU coronavirus resource centre. ILO; Geneva: Annual report. IOM: Geneva.
IOM; Geneva: COVID and stranded migrants. Covid - 19 impact ON stranded migrants. Six thousand Bangladeshi students in Australia are in danger. The government will not take care fo them. Jadhav R. Train kills sixteen workers laid-off in coronavirus lockdown. Jones K. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Insecurity and fear travel as labour travels in the time of pandemic.
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The coronavirus is killing globalization as we know it. Mahmood B. Mashal M. In Afghanistan, coronavirus complicates war and peace. Mayer J. Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases. Migrant workers and coronavirus: Risks and responses. Eight U. Doctors died from coronavirus. All were immigrants. Piyash R. Not only bad news but there are good news too ahead. Rahman M. Irregular Bangladeshi migrants in Spain are in dire condition.
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