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Italy and Spain, to help finance a pro mis ed 2 percentage point cut in the hated solidarity surcharge, which is added to income and corporation tax bills to help finance eastern Germany. The government will today announce the price at which it will privatise the first 20 per cent tranche of the state-owned telecoms operator. Saxner Iskandar. Aquino yesterday. Period," he said. Do your worst, we will do our best to stop you.

And we. We are people power once more. We triumphed over tyranny before; tyranny cannot triumph over us again. I would be very surprised if the stock market didn't react very positively to this. Mr Kim's firm lead in the polls, at SO per cent against 19 per cent for Mr Lee, might result in the first peaceful transfer of power since South Korea's estab- lishment in Nearly half of Koreans polled recently believe that Mr Kim will be the nation's next president. Mr Lee's political problems appear to be mounting.

Rhee In-je, a young and charis- matic provincial governor who narrowly lost the presi- dential nomination of the centre-right New Korea party to Mr Lee, announced his candidacy as an indepen- dent a week ago. This threatens to split the government party.

Opinion polls suggest that Mr Rhee could become the strongest challenger to Mr Kim in the election. Nonetheless, many ana- lysts are not writing off Mr Lee's prospects. This is based on the belief that con- servative voters will coalesce behind one the four centre- right candidates to defeat Mr Kim as the December 18 elec- tion day approaches.

If such a shift in support materialises, it would appear to favour Mr Lee, wbo has a stronger party organisation to rely on than his other con- servative rivals. There is public mistrust of Mr Kim who, as an opponent of the former military gov- ernment, was portrayed by the intelligence service as a leftwing radical with sympa- thies for communist North Korea. That image has not entirely disappeared. The recent defection to North Korea of a religious adviser to Mr Kim's political party has not helped.

Moreover, Mr Kim has been strongly identified with representing the interests of the economically disadvan- taged south-west Cholla region. This has raised con- cern among voters in the politically dominant south- east Kyongsang region. Kyongsang voters, who account for 40 per cent of the electorate, fear that Mr Kim might carry out a political purge once he ta k-P«t office by replacing Kyongsang office- holders with ones from Cholla.

Moreover, there are doubts about Mr Kim's sta- mina to govern for the next five years because be is 72 years old. Mr Kim is fi ghting hard to improve his image among conservative voters. He has dropped his populist eco- nomic policy favouring the trade unions and attacking the huge conglomerates. But the question remains whether this will be enough to overcome deep-seated sus- picions among conservative voters who hold the key.

Australia sticks to line on emissions By Elizabeth Robinson in Sydney Australia has refused to how to pressure from neighbour- ing Pacific states over its stand on greenhouse gas emissions. The nation South Pacific Forum in the Cook Islands released a communi- que after a meeting at the weekend endorsing Austra- lia's stand for individual countries to set their own emission targets, despite anxiety about rising sea lev- els.

The outcome is likely to sour relations between Aus- tralia and the island nations further, especially after the discovery in July of secret papers in which Australia accused most island leaders of incompetence and corrup- tion. Australia is seeking wider support for Its argument that each country shonld have the right to set its own emission targets, in direct conflict with European pro- posals for a uniform IS per cent cnL Australia argues that the US and Japan have not yet announced their targets and that a uniform cut would unfairly penalise Australia, which produces just 1.

Greenpeace, the environmental pressure group, said that per head 'of population Australia was one of the highest polluters in the world, as 90 per cent of the electridty system was coal-fired. Barring a last-minute upset, political sources expect the national assembly to confirm a prominent and popular southern reformer, Phan Van Khai, 63, as the new prime minister. Tran Due Luang, 60, a more conservative party technocrat, appears set to become president.

Their appointments, and cabinet changes that will follow, will end months of uncertainty surrounding two of Hanoi's three leadership posts. However, many observers say their selection also indicates there is a continuing absence of consensus in Vietnam about where the country is heading, and about who should hold the reins of power.

Weekend reports quoted the regent of the Jayawijaya region as saying that most of the people had starved or died of cholera, because of a lack of clean drinking water. He warned that many more could die if food relief did not reach the remote villages but said that a thick haze from widespread forest fires had hampered delivery of food by aircraft.

The worst drought in decades, blamed on the global El Niflo weather pattern, has also reduced river levels, blocked river transport and forced villagers to drink polluted water. Many Indonesians have used slash-and-bum techniques to clear land in the forests of Irian Jaya, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Sumatra.

When the fires spread and destroyed more than 80, hectares, clouds of smoke spread across northern Indonesia and into the Malay peninsula. Failure of rice harvests, compounded by bushfires, bug caused malnourishment on the island of Java. Sander Thoenes. Land prices in Japan as a whole, as of July 1. However, commercial land prices in the three large urban areas of Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya were 9. Residential land prices In Tokyo have also fallen back to their level The National Land Agency notes that the decline in land prices was not as large as in previous years.

In some commercial areas in central Tokyo, prices have actually risen, it noted. Michiyo Nakamoto, Tokyo Far-sighted encounter with the euro: our know-how lifts the veil. On January in a global context. To unmask oppor- 1,, exchange rates of the EU mem- tunities, and generate tailor-made con- bers will be fixed. And the European cepts.

It Frankfurt headquarters, is rooted in the classic DG BANK is ideally positioned to help tradition of the cooperative system link- business gain a clearsighted view of the ing equal business partners. And it has complex Euromarket. And with a pres- a great future. Opening soon: Bangkok. Gordon Brown. UK chancellor announced yesterday. In spite of recent pressure from the International Monetary Fund to reveal more information, only a few countries including Hang Kong.

Australia and the US, publish details of their for- ward transactions. Mr Brown told the IMF's key ministerial committee yesterday that the government would announce quarterly details of its transactions in gold and foreign exchange. It will also publish full accounts of spot and forward positions once a year.

Bat other members of the com- mittee were reluctant. Mr Rrown also proposes to pub- lish details of toe cuzrency. This STmueh tba UK spends tarisg episodes of coocerted Intone- Sooal intervention to support uo ther country's currency. Sound liberalisation and expanded access to capital markets should reduce the frequency with which coun- tries had to come to the IMF for financial assistance, the committee said.

But in some circumstances large sums might be needed. In Europe interest rates should remain low enough to maintain sus- tained growth in domestic spending, the committee said. A further 15 per cent will be allocated in proportion to "calculated quotas".

Another 9 per emit will be allocated to all mem- bers whose actual quotas are lower than their calculated ones, with the final 1 per cent going to the five coun- tries whose quotas are far- thest out of line with their present economic position. The entry crite- ria for Emu would be strictly applied. The future Euro- pean central bank would be "the most independent in toe world". Mr de Silguy said the euro would become a major reserve and portfolio cur- rency.

He wanted the Asians to mneidw the single cur- rency as an alternative to the dollar. The French Commissioner argues that Emu-bloc coun- tries will reduce foreign exchange holdings because they will not need extra reserves to finance trade or intervention in European currency markets. In practice. The exception, said a gtmirvr EU monetary o ffici al, was Japan, where the gov- ernment wanted to know whether the advent of tbe euro could encourage moves toward a tripolar monetary system buflt around the dol- lar, euro and yen.

Global Investor. The incident fuelled fears tn Taiwan that Hong Kong's return to Chinese sover- eignty could hamper its business and financial deal- ings in the territory. Hong Kong officials declined to comment, argu- ing that it was government policy not to comment on individual cases.

However, toe incident reflects toe sen- sitivity of relations since the return to China. Old Jewry. Options e 1 Currencies with Java txosa u oduatge fleers James Mavtvcfl - ' Quality Service. The committee is expected to endorse the core princi- ples, published in draft form earlier this year, in Hong Kong where central bankers and finance ministers are gathering for the annual meetings of the World Bank and the International Mone- tary Fund.

The Basle rules are already a widely accepted benchmark for banking supervision, but they are only formally imposed in the Group of Ten leading indus- trialised countries. The new core principles have been drafted in consul- tation with supervisors from countries such as China and Chile, as well as the IMF, which now pays close atten- tion to banking systems. The best known products Of the Basle committee are the capital adequacy ratios, which require banks to keep a capital cushion equivalent to at least 8 par cent of their assets, weighted according to risk.

Morris Goldstein, former deputy director of research at the IMF. Thanong BWaya said Thailand was committed to toe IMF rescue package, introduced after toe government was forced to let its currency fall in July. Venezuela as it does to one In, say, the United States," he argues in an article in The Financial Regulator, a specialist jour- nal But bankers in some emerging market countries say the Basle capital ratios will prove a less important element of tbe principles than the establishment of new norms for the indepen- dence and authority of supervisors.

The budget has to increase. The core principles to be ratified in Hong Kong today have been changed only slightly from the draft issued for comment in April, with some modifications to tbe definition of capital and tbe application of consolidated supervision to diversified banking groups. However, the committee is expected to drop plans to set a timetable for implementing the princi- ples.

In the long run, banks from counfries which do not apply the principles could find they are treated more harshly by supervisors in. Outflows of foreign direct investment FDD from the countries where transnation- als have their headquarters jumped by 10 per cent in to a record S35Qbn. But FDI represents only about a quarter of total investment in foreign subsidiaries, which now raise much larger sums an their own account from banks, equity markets and other sources around the world, the report says.

Unctad expects the rapid globalisation of production to continue apace over tbe next few years, especially since mane and more govern- ments are liberalising their investment rules to attract FDI in the quest for capital and growth. The report says FDI has benefited many recipient countries but warns that. How- ever, the idea is regarded with deep suspicion by many developing countries, which fear the impact an their sov- ereignty, as well as by the US, which opposes any watering down of its own anti-trust legislation.

Though most FDI goes to industrialised. FDI inflows remain heavily concentrated in a few developing countries. The main boost to FDI in these countries has been ris- ing merger and acquisition activity, the report says. A study by the WTO secretariat says such commitments also provide an added incentive to press ahead with domestic policy reforms, needed to ensure that liberalisation promotes sound economic development and does not contribute to finan cial instabil- ity- Liberalisation is not the main cause of financial shocks, the WTO says.

The study is intended to inject impe- tus into negotiations between WTO members, aimed at removing barriers to foreign investment and trade in banking, Insurance and securities. The US insists any deal must include substantial commitments by advanced developing economies to liberalise financial services. However, recent market turmoil in south-east Asia has discouraged many countries there from participating actively in toe talks so far.

The study does not refer explicitly to toe Asian turbulence. But it argues that freer trade and competition in financial services promote economic development and encourage more sta- ble and resilient financial systems. The WTO says there is much evi- dence that countries with open finan- cial sectors have grown faster than those with protected markets. The study concedes that fiercer inter - national competition threatens ineffi- cient financial institutions and inflict hardship on industries and panics which had previously en preferential access to credit.

The study says that formalisms alisation measures in a WTO a ment can make national policies predic table, add urgency to re efforts, weaken the power of sf interest lobbies and reassure fd investors. Pax: F: 13 a: m Po: Promised tfe r. To find lifteSI ccmfiniiiitiofl of oiif eincigmg markets expertise.

Proof of our on-the- wwwingbarings. The announcement marked the first time in the continuing saga of alleged fund-raising improprieties that the president himself has been the subject of spe- cific c riminal investigations. If the review finds no evi- dence to rebat the allega- tions, Mr Clinton could, within a few months, find himself the target of a spe- cial independent prosecutor, looking to press charges against him.

In a statement issued on Saturday, Ms Janet Reno, the attorney general, said her department had begun a formal day review of the allegations, at the end of which she would decide whether to go ahead with a broader day investigation. It after that, the president is still not cleared, she will ask a panel of judges to appoint a special counsel Mr Clinton has claimed he cannot remember whether he made the alleged tele- phone calls, though bis law- yers argue that, even if he did, there was nothing crimi- nal about them.

Two weeks ago, Ms Reno ordered a formal review of similar allegations against A1 Gore, the vice- president. But newspapers have reported that at least some of the money raised by Mr Gore was subsequently directed into the Cllnton- Gore re-election campaign. Investigators will attempt to determine whether Mr Clin- ton's efforts went the same way. Most polls suggest voters regard the alleged misde- meanours as technical infractions of an arcane law.

The announcement marks the first time Mr Clinton has been the subject of cr iminal investigation of acts commit- ted while In office. He is still under investigation by a spe- cial prosecutor over his role in the Whitewater affair, a property fraud in Arkansas that occurred when he was governor of Arkansas in the s. News of the investigation followed a surprise announcement on Friday by the Senate committee inves- tigating alleged campaign abuses that it was abruptly changing tack.

Instead of continuing to focus on spe- cific allegations of impropri- ety. Politician of paradoses. Page 16 Arabs avoid summit boycott By Mark Hu band in Cairo Arab foreign ministers yesterday cast doubt over the fate of a regional eco- nomic conference scheduled for November but stopped short of demanding a boy- cott of the conference to pro- test against Israeli policies. The member Arab League meeting in Cairo voted to continue a freeze on the normalisation of ties with Israel but assented to an appeal by the Qatari hosts of the forthcoming Middle East and North Africa Economic conference in Doha - to which Israel is expected to be invited - that governments decide for themselves whether to attend.

The decision sharply divided the region, with Syria, Lebanon and the Pal- estinian Authority backing a boycott. In a furious argu- ment on Friday with Qatari officials, Yassir Arafat, the Palestinian Authority presi- dent, fainted and had to be revived by a doctor before leaving the meeting.

Arab states have been urged by the US to attend the conference. Madeleine Albright, US secretary of state, appeared to have secured a possible review of Saudi Arabian objections to the conference after meeting King Fahd during her recent visit to the Middle East. However, Prince Sand al-Faisal. Saudi Arabian foreign minister, said yesterday bis govern- ment's position on the con- ference bad not changed from its earlier linkage with progress in the peace pro- cess.

Jordan and Morocco, the closest US allies in the region, and the United Arab Emirates have all expressed doubts about heir readiness to attend. This will be die largest non-tour- ist property investment proj- ect on the communist-ruled jgluTlri- Tbe year project envis- ages the construction of modem office blocks offering space for rent in hard cur- rency to foreign and Cuban companies. The first two six- floor buildings, which will include shops and business premises on the ground floors, are scheduled to be completed in 18 months.

Enrique Rottenberg, gen- eral manager of Panama- based Monte Barreto, said he was confident there would be strong demand from for- eign businesses. BM received a letter from US authorities earlier this year warning it that some of its interests in Cuba could be violating Helms-Burton.

The law. In response. Before the latest property venture. BM was already operating' Cuba's biggest cit- rus export farm. It has also been involved in technical consultancy and financing operations in Cuba's strate- gic sugar sector. His popularity as a political outsider thrust him into the role of opposi- tion leader in the June gen- eral election but observers question whether he will succeed in reforming national politics or whether politics will change him.

During bis 10 -year political career. Mr Manning has challenged the political sta- tus quo, calling for a tougher stance against Quebec sepa- ratists. And he has been largely successful in nudg- ing the governing Liberal party of Jean Chretien, the Scott Morrison prime minister, to adopt more conservative fiscal pol- icies. Now, however, there are signs that Ottawa's trap- pings of power are be ginning to mellow Mr Manning, whose party won 60 seats in the seat bouse.

He argued that not moving in would show disrespect for his office. Mr Manning has also sprung a surprise by adopt- ing a more conciliatory tone toward the people of Quebec. The opposition leader clearly realises his tough stance had not been working in heavily populated Ontario, the politi- cally important province where he foiled to win any seats in June.

However, Mr Manning is likely to continue pushing his conservative agenda aggressively in parliament He will be countered by the New Democrats and the Pro- gressive Conservatives. The Liberal party will strive to balance the budget but many analysts predict Mr Chretien will eventually be forced to increase spending on some social programmes and pos- sibly announce a small ta» cut M ost observers con- tend that Mr Chrg- tien, who called the election early to take advantage of his popularity, will be CQntmxt to maintain the status quo.

The bulk of legislation will include some of the 33 bills already in parliament when the last session -was dis- solved. Some, such as a bill to reform Canada's pension plan, require immediate attention. Amendments to Canada's competition act and its labour code, as well as measures to revise and streamline the customs tariff schedule, will also be tabled early in the session.

Paul Mar tin, finance min- ister, had pledged to relax restrictions by the end of on foreign financial institutions by allowing them to open branches in Canada for wholesale bank- ing without requiring them to establish separately capi- talised subsidiaries. But Mr Yanover said the government was unlikely to meet that deadline given the urgency of other initiatives. Trading starts now while stocks last.

The Financial Times Diary. An investment that pays dividends daily. Phone or fax to ensure delivery of your diary Telephone no: 0 V massive. But the gamble that the government would relax the tough rules on aver -recruit- ment because of its late deci- sion to impose JH.

OOO-a-year tuition fees for the first time next year looks unlikely to pay ofL. Figures released by the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service show , students have been given places on degree courses, even though univer- sities had room for only , Tony Higgins. UCAS chief executive, predicts this will rise to , before the beginning of the academic year, with universities over- shooting the target by 30, Brunei University has admitted an extra stu- dents, having seen the num- ber of applicants rise by 5, University, one of the country's top research institutions, has exceeded the limi t by 10 per cent, taking on an extra students.

Stephen Lamley. To make room, first-year students expecting accom- modation on campus are being rehoused off campus, but there are concerns that a heavy fine will deplete reserves which are planned to be invested in computer and library facilities.

But if it doesn't, we will be teaching students for nothing. This week, sees the last of. Hurt by several years of crippling losses, the number of Names has already dropped from a peak of just over 34, in to about 9, Corporate investors, who began underwriting at Lloyd's three years ago, have increased their presence in the market and are expected next year to provide funds ha Hiring more thaw half the business Lloyd's writes.

Lloyd's has raised mini- mum capital requirements and underwriting agents have increased their fees. The limited liability con- version schemes have enjoyed a mixed response. Engineers watch yesterday as the engine of a passenger train, which crashed in west London on Friday, is lifted from the track. Six people died in the accident and were injured.

Action Research, a charity for serious disabling dis- eases, whose patron is the Duke of Edinburgh, has called on companies to think twice before giving to the fund - usually at the expense of the charities they have traditionally supported. Anne Luther, director- general of Action Research, which was not linked with Diana, said: "I recognise that employees would react posi- tively [to the fund] and that the public and customers would too. It would also make life a lot easier by removing the need for going through what is often a time-consuming decision- making process.

But I hope company directors will stop and think about the reper- cussions of such an action. It now fears it will not meet its target. In Even charities associated with Diana are suffering. In fact. Rev Tony Lloyd, the executive direc- tor, said: "We're going to be in real trouble". Derek Bodell.

Nationwide says it wants to maintain democratic accountability, but believes it is too easy for rebels to stand for elections to its board and for carpetbaggers to disrupt its business. In a letter to Gordon Brown, the chancellor of the Exchequer. An-ping Chen, finance director of D-link, said the company was keen to acquire an established European producer of computer , networking products.

An information kiosk that benefits any generation. F» i There have been more than the usual number of strikes, with probably even more to come. OOObn this year. So it was with some trepidation that 1 embarked three weeks ago on commuting Italian style. Milan is certainly not London. It may regard itself as Italy's financial and moral capital as well as the cradle of opera and the centre of high fashion.

But it is in fact a big, unattractive, pro- vincial city with the pretensions to be a metropolis. Most Milanese live and work in Milan for four, sometimes five days and then, if they can afford it, disappear to the mountains to the country or to the seaside for the weekend.

And the great majority of those who decide to commute do so by DATELINE Milan: Commuting by railway from the countryside holds secret delights, writes Paul Betts car or by aeroplane half the Milanese banking community seem to have their wives and children at home in London.

For a few months, while my family was still in London, I com- muted by air to London along with all those bankers. Planes overbooked, bankers talking into their mobile tele- : phones, inevitable delays. Planes still overbooked, bankers still talking into their mobiles,, delays longer than ever. It suf- fered a decline in the s and s when the economic miracle enabled even the most modest Italian families to acquire small Flatcars. But it- has continued to chug along, makes a small profit, and.

The service is quaintly archaic. My mile journey takes about one hoar. Mussolini would probably not approve of the jungle of graffiti that these days adorn the outside and fp sid e of the coaches. But with an average delay of only one minute last year the service comes close to meeting the Dace's punctuality standards.

There is no air conditioning and in summer your trousers tend to stick on the red velvet benches in -the first class com- partment. But you always find a seat and fellow passengers, on the ; whole, are polite and well dressed.

It is never dulL The other day the ticket controller was having a problem with a passenger who insisted on a 60 per cent discount because he was a member of the Northern League and travelling on the. Ferrovie fiord. As tiie little train leaves Milan , passing through an industrial wasteland,, it rumbles through suburban countryside, kitchen gardens arid, men sitting on their balconies in boxer sborte and vests watching. I- suppose with pity. That s when the magic begins.

The Monday Profile: Jean Peyrelevade, Credit Lyonnais Banking on success F or once in his turbulent period at the head of Credit Lyonnais, the French state-owned bank, Jean Peyrelevade believes he may be able to remain in charge until the end of his man- date. The change in mood is quite a shift for a man who ran into fre- quent conflict with three minis- ters under two successive centre- right governments which had selected Hrm for the job in On more than one occasion, he threatened to resign in an effort to get his way.

He went on to run the then state-owned conglomerate Suez and the insurer UAP. But more important is the change in circumstances at Credit Lyonnais since he took over as chairman. In particular, be seems finally to have suc- ceeded in winning support far a modification of the state-backed rescue plan for the bank approved by the European Com- mission in Tbe cost this year alone was estimated at FFr3bn. It now seems set to be waived for all past and future years.

But he claims these objectives should be exceeded by From the beginning of next year, with the negative image of the b ank beginning to fade in the wake of its difficulties, he says he aims to rebuild French market share. Instead, he highlights taking nationwide from pilot pro- grammes actively to seek busi- ness from clients, to computerise further and to launch new tele- phone platforms. The quicker-tban-expected turnaround at the betterthan-an- ticipated asset sales certainly means he is no longer seeking a capital injection from the state of up to FFrl3bn - something that win make his new left-wing polit- ical masters as delighted as their right-wing predecessors.

But be quickly adds that his personal view is that. Credit Lyonnais should be privatised, adding that, for hit f i , that means selling t h e majority stake, while the govern- ment could still retain a small investment Conveniently, that seems to correspond very nicely to the def- inition chosen by Lionel Jospin, the prime minister, who has recently agreed to open a minor- ity stake of Air France and France Telecom to private inves- tors.

In the past fortnight three countries - Argentina. Venezuela and Panama - have offered to buy back their Brady bonds from global investors. In exchange they issued unsecured bonds. The recent flurry of Brady swap offers follows the successful retirement of substantial amounts of Brady bonds by Mexico, Brazil and the Philip- pines over the past 15 months.

So what are Brady bands anyway? Brady bands - nanwt after the far mer US Trea- sury secretary Nicholas Brady who created the concept - were issued in the late s and early s in lieu of distressed commercial bank debt when it became clear Latin American sovereign borrowers would be unable to meet their debt service obligations owing to faltering economic growth.

After rescheduling the debt repayments, Bradys were issued with maturities of up to 30 years. The capital repayment on the Bradys was often backed - or collateralised - by US Treasury bonds whose value at maturity would equal the nominal amount oft debt to be repaid. Some also carried guarantees for some interest payments. Investors who held Bradys had a guarantee they would recover part cf their investment How- ever, most governments that have Issued Brady bonds believe that Bradys have outgrown their usefulness.

Brady bonds? Bradys are a stigma for countries that consider themselves to have overcome their debt problems, because they remind investors of past difficulties. For countries that have been facing problems in servicing the debt they owed to commercial banks, Bradys offer a way forward. Countries - meetly in Latin America - that hare carried out successful Brady swap or retirement operations want to be accepted as naamstream borrowers in the international debt markets- Bra- zil, Mexico and Argentina in particular have been very active borrowers in the eurobond and yankee bond markets.

All three have also issued global bonds, which are sold to investors both in the US and Europe. Unlike Brady bonds, eurobonds and yankee bonds are not backed up by third party collateral. Of course, in a bear market for bonds, the price of these bonds is likely to fall further than those of Brady bonds, which are carrying collateral. WSD vogue for emerging market paper burn itself out like it has so many times before?

There is always a danger that investment funds will lose their appetite for emerging market debt This could be triggered by a number of events. If the US Federal Reserve raised US interest rates sharply, portfolio managers would probably switch their investments out of emerging market debt into cash or US Treasury bonds.

The last timfi this happened, in March , emerging market bonds suffered badly. But so, however, did everybody else including the world's leading stock markets. It would be safe to say that most Latin American economies and other countries - such as the Philippines and Poland - are not the places they were when they last flirted with bankruptcy in the s. Over the past few years countries such as 'Argentina and Brazil have carried out thorough economic reforms.

This has been recognised by the US-based credit rating agencies which have rewarded countries such as the Philippines with higher credit ratings. Both Mexico and Brazil are now just two notches below investment grade status. However, the recent currency aims in south- east Asia shows the danger of complacency and some analysts worry that the Crisis could spread to Brazil, which has a large current account defi- cit and an overvalued currency.

T TT i -,,1. Financial markets believe it. Even Britain is coming round to the idea. European economic and monetary, union Increasingly looks set to begin as planned, on January l, But while tbe momentum for a prompt start to Emu has gath- ered pace in recent months, there has been little public dis- cussion about the problems that will have to be tackled after tbe la unch of the single currency.

That is changing. The past three weeks have seen a flurry of warnings that Emu will be born in a difficult environment and require radical economic adjust- ment among its member states. Hans Tletmeyer, the Bundes- bank president, was. This month, he reminded readers of Die Woche, a German newspaper, that the Maastricht treaty was taking Europe into uncharted territory and that his awn country would have to change. Europe will simply have a single monetary policy. He pointed oat that flexibility in the business sector and the labour market were essential for Emu to.

A smiflar warning came last week from the International Monetary Fund which lamented the lack of economic reform in Germany, -France and Italy. It suggested greater labour market flexibility was almost as impor- tant foe the fixture of Emu as a sound fiscal policy in the mem- ber states. Without Labour mar- ket reform, unemployment would rise and undermine public support for the single currency.

Tbe need for action in much of Europe can be seen in the illus- tration right showing recent forecasts of s tr uct u ral unemploy- ment in by tbe Paris-based Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The OECD expects structural unemployment, which requires changed policies to be corrected, to be 10 per cent of the European Union labour force next year - more than 1 2 times the 0B per cent cyclical jobless rate that might be expected to disappear with an economic upturn.

Prof Neumann did not pull his punches. But official forecasts i ran ra te d that the number of people aged 63 and above was likely to jump from about 35 per cent of the population of working, age in to 57 per cent by The demographic shift starting after is fore- seeable today. German politics.

That was true ennngh 12 days ago. Last wee] however, some of the close political allies of Helmut Kota the German chancellor, showe that they also saw an agenda i structural reform in Emu. A policy. The Maastrict treaty, it said, was designed t break the vicious eirde of risin une mployment and the growin strain on public finances.

Modi tary union, it went on. US manu- facturer turned. Lee, the US consumer. Amid -the flurry of ac tivity , two pritateqre worth noting. First, ijy no means. Second, many of tlwse moves contain an element of balance-sheet restruct- uring - what an older generation of managers would have dismis- siveJy termed finanrriy i engineer- ing. As with most thing s manage- rial, there may be an element of fashion to this. But there Is sub- stance as well According to a long-range study from a group of researchers at the top-ranked Wharton business school, finan- cial engineering is the only kind of restructuring that consistently works.

First came organisational restructuring: downsizing, reali gnin g of business units and so forth. Then came portfolio restructur- ing: changes in the asset base through divestitures, asset sales or spin-offs. Last came financial restructuring: big changes in the capital structure, such as lever- aged buy-outs or debt-equity swaps.

The study then looked at immediate share price reactions and profit performance over the following few years. In the case of organisational restructuring, the average performance worked out slightly negative; for portfo- lio restructuring it was slightly positive; for financial restructur- ing it was very positive indeed. Why should financial en gineer. Among vari-. That is, having funded all available pro- jects that provide a decent return, they too often spend the rest on projects that do not deliver shareholder value.

If so, it Is obviously preferable to hand the spare back to shareholders, through share buy- backs, special dividends or what- ever. Few managers care to admit that they have in effect run out of profitable ideas. They stop us doing marginal low-return business - and there is plenty around if you want ft.

Included in the study's definition of financial restructuring were leveraged buy-outs. Since bay-outs involve raising balance sheet gearing, they force managers to make choices in the way Mr Taylor suggests. But they also typically split a business from a more diversified parent Those two factors - better use of cash and greater focus - seem also to apply in portfolio restruct- uring.

The study found compa- nies performed much better when they spun businesses off rather than sold them. If they did sell them, the results were better if the proceeds went to sharehold- ers rather than being retained. Similarly, results were better if portfolio changes resulted in greater focus.

Companies that bought and sold businesses aggressively, by contrast, did slightly worse than the market overall. If those findiug s are right, the recent explosion of activity seems perfectly rational. But what about the evidence that financial restructuring works better again? Prof Useem says, may be a matter of timing. First, corpora- tions have devoted much effort in the past decade to becoming more operationally effi- cient.

Many are now turning their attention to the efficient use of capital. Second, portfolio change seems a curiously enduring phenome- non. In part, this may be bemuse each generation of managers feels impelled to reshuffle the cards passed to them by their predecessors. But it may also be because markets are these days hanging so fast that business portfolios must be continuously modified to keep up. If so, the winners will be those companies that grasp the fact plus - as ever - the manage- ment consul tan ts and investment bankers who feed them advice.

Edward H Bowman. Harbir Singh. Michael Useem and Raja I Bhadury. Oxford University Business. School I J? Examptea must be intha EngBsh tanguage onid shoald be no longer than words. The three top entries win. Entries md cteeriy demonstrate the originator. The name of the submitter must be entered on the entry form but will nor be publicly disclosed If the box has been ticked.

Address ' ' ' 3 Slic'. After persuading. Harrods, Boots and Superdrug to stack their product, they went on to design a range qf toiletries for men. After that I began experimenting with different blends of aromatherapy oils until 1 found a mix that wasn't too idoapy. The hardest part was convincing other people.

I wanted to concentrate on -. In a way he bad what I wanted - an MBA - and. I had what he wanted - the ability to come up 7 with ideas. He knew how to write a business plan which enabled us to raise more capital. Within 18 months we went from one. The King of Shaves started life as a few drops of oil in a horrid brow n bottle, yet he believed it would work.

Neither of us knew anything about the market so a lot of it came down to Will's personality and his ability to persuade, the big names to buy it After seeing him in meetings : E knew he wouldn't fail through, lack of trying. Pm much more analytical than him, which comes with - having an MBA. He was m a n u facturing the oil, staring it, delivering fti collecting money and trying to persuade filestores to stock. The riewpoaKs of major retailers, ftneg tnanufaouren anil printing equipment suppfien wilJ aO bo represented Brochures and registration forms from Melinda Scales.

Topics covered In these courses S7 - stocks, bonds, mutuel funds, municipal securtties. S3 - commodities futures, options on futures, financial futures. Intensive Reviews offered regularly In London. Frankfurt Geneva and Zurich. The last time we had spoken she sounded perfectly normal, if a little fraught However, since then she had allowed herself to be talked into using, some management consul- tants.

She had drawn up an agenda, cover- ing a long list of complex issues, and wanted some help on how to deal with the more explosive ones. The consultants glanced at the list and cast it aside. They said she could not even begin to discuss these matters until a thorough cultural audit of the whole business had been conducted, and that the meeting would be an ideal opportunity to set some parameters.

She scowled, ground her teeth a bit They then told her that the meet- ing should include a celebration of each individual as an important member of the team. The best way of achieving this, they solemnly suggested, would be a group hug. When she protested that there was no way she was going to hug anyone on her team, she was made to feel that this negative attitude might be one of the reasons why there were so many problems. This story makes me sad. These consultants were not Moanies, nei- ther were they even Californians.

They bad been to Europe's best busi- ness schools, and their company, tho ug h small, - harf appeared reputa- ble. Not only were the edges so sharp that you nearly cut your fingers off opening it but when you looked at the front you could see your own reflection, mad and distorted. Not a particularly good image for a company that promises to sort you out What do your investment banker and your spouse have in common?

A lot says Howard Schultz, the man behind the Starbucks chain of coffee shops. In the current issue of For- tune magazine he explains at length that whether you are choosing some- one to float your company on the stock market or deciding who to marry, it makes no odds: in both cases the things to look for are integ- rity and passion.

In the US they really rate this chap. He is the new darling of the business world and his book is likely to become the nest best seller in the how-I -becam e-so-great genre. But his ideas about spouses are going too far. Take Integrity. Whether choosing spouse, banker - or window cleaner - some degree of integrity is required. It goes without saying. A necessary rather than a sufficient condition for a successful partnership, one might say. Passion is the opposite: desirable neither in choice of spouse nor in choice of banker.

A marriage founded on passion is likely not to last, and as for a passionate banking relationship - the less said about that the better. However, the Har- vard Business Review has twisted the arm of the revered management guru into making a management forecast for the next 75 years. His vision is an odd one. Could it be that Drucker, pushing 90 and going strong, is letting per- sonal experience cloud his vision?

His other forecast is equally hard to fathom. He says that in the future the art and science of management will be extended to health and edu- cation. Where has he been all these years? Management has been rife in these areas for more than a decade, and in charities, the arts - you name it Indeed, 1 challenge him - or any- one else - to find a group activity in the west that has escaped the curse of management theory and practice. What does it take to connect to places in Asia, Europe, the Americas and all other parts of the globe?

It starts with a firm understanding of local ideas, people , and places. It's also about superior services and cherished commitments. At the last count, more than —. Since then the concept has been most popular with consultan- cies and high-tech companies, which both have.

It is used as a tool by manag ement and tied closely to the needs of the business. Despite its great success. Motorola denies that it competes with universities, saying it is too closely tied to the needs of the company. Cost is also a factor. According to Michael Kim, manag in g consul- tant with Towers Perrin in New York, business schools can seem expensive and of limited relevance. This left US companies leaner and mea- nity to use them as a tool of l What really differentiates a university from ner, but with car a dressed up training department is that the sudden growth in corpo- rate universities.

Setting op a common curriculum for afi staff helps set out the values and strategy of a newly merged they can ensure that everything is taught according to the strategies of the organisation. That's quite expensive for developing one per- son. There is a short- age of experi- enced executives who are up to date with the lat- est developments in management theory.

So far, compa- nies have responded by hiring for more management consultants, and by showing a greater willing- ness to hire MBA graduates straight from business school. This is an expensive way of keep- ing up to date.

But in the longer term, she sug- gests companies need to keep then- existing employees up to date. That is why they are organising their own uni- versities internally. So for, the Arthur D Little School of Management in Boston is the only corporate university to apply successfully for full qualification- awarding powers. However, another 20 or so are known to be planning such a move.

Charles Hickman of the Ameri- can business school accreditation body, the AACSB, says: "The trend is that there are more customised programmes being offered by uni- versity-based business schools for specific corporate clients. This goes against the traditional business school culture of gaining extra learning opportunities from bringing together students from different business back- grounds.

But that control is central to the popularity of corporate universities with executives. The old days of sending teams of people to open enrollment programmes are over. The firm has chosen Manchester and Warwick business schools to teach the programmes. The first batch of folly funded students, 56 In all. Next year the firm expects some 70 managers to begin an MBA programme with one of the two schools and a year to start the scheme within two years.

The three partners insist the programme is not a company MBA nor is it an MBA for accountants: the participants will study the same course, with the same range of optional elective courses, as others studying on a foil-time or part-time MBA at the two schools. Some financial elements may he adjusted for highly qualified accountants. Students will attend the business schools in five blocks at four days each year, from Wednesdays to Saturdays inclusive.

Of the first intake 31 students have opted to study at Manchester and 25 are going to Warwick. Babson: vnow. Then the latest version of the Economist Intelligence Unit guide. Which MBA? Such programmes are well established in the UK and demand for them has grown dramatically in the US over the past two years because of the spread of affordable technology. The update, which is open to non -members, includes a visit to Jaguar Cars in Coventry and a briefing from the European Commission and the Rank of England on the implications of a single currency.

Amba: UK. Fax Country Tajikistan, Tuttensrisuttu Uzbekistan. For further information contact: Ms Gerlinde de Leonard! Alia tel, Tcl-Energo. Course uses sopInsticaKri technical analysis software and dealing simulation. Lywood David International Ltd. What is in B for business -for g ove rn me nts - for society? Vienw Semanr Oa. For the past decade ICMB has built a solid reputation trebling executives from over institutions and 80 couTtrtes in the latest risk management techniques.

An eudushw platform to develop further trade and investment within tile Commonwealth. FRAs, Futures. Interest rate swaps etc. Lywood David International Lid. With the domino theory, the US strategy in south- east Asia was simple to understand and easy to agree - after all few in the west cared much if Vietnam itself fell.

It has been with the same discredited line that the tobacco industry has kept the advertising industry in thrall. If tobacco advertis- ing goes, then it will be the turn of alcohol, toys, foods and goodness knows what next. Few in agencies, except the direct recipients of tobacco money, care much if tobacco advertising goes, but plenty care about the rest, it is good, easily assim- ilated, propaganda, flawed only, like the Vietnam dom- ino theory, by being untrue.

The truth, on the con- trary, is that supporting the insupportable endangers the prospect of a fair hear- ing for the myriad other issues on which it is critical that advertising gets a rea- sonable hearing. Abandoning the defence of tobacco allows all sides of the argument to recognise that tobacco is uniquely harmful among mainstream advertised products. If it was invented today it would never be allowed to be sold. It is only historical circumstance that malms ft impossible for governments to withdraw it from sale.

But that accidental circum- stance provides no excuse for continued promotion. Proponents have argued there is no evidence that the advertising of tobacco brands increases total use, and they are right - there is no definitive evidence either way. We are, therefore, forced back to common sense and experi- ence. Any one who is alone in supporting his brand in the market longs for others to support theirs too in the knowledge that more brands advertising tend to create greater overall mar- ket buoyancy.

R stands to reason because most advertising spends its energies remind- ing people of the pleasures of the category - it is the benefit of a cup of tea that the user primarily wants; whether it is PG or Tetley is only a small play on that central desire.

Although regulation restricts, to some extent, what tobacco advertising can do. However much the tobacco industry reminds us that it only seeks to get brand prefer- ence, the aggregate of its activity - all our experience would suggest - will make the market more resilient than it would otherwise be. While there is a risk that any brand advertising ciga- rettes will encourage some- one to smoke, or to smoke more, it is better avoided.

The cynicism induced by the apparent support of anything that makes money, whatever the social cost, weakens the power of our arguments in favour of advertising's overall bene- fit. Without this obstacle In spite of the constraints on tobacco ads, the mere act of advertising implies social acceptability the Industry will have more credibility in its advocacy of the role of advertising in stimulating innovation, choice and competition.

It will also gain more sup- port for the Advertising Association's principle of freedom of commercial speech - if it Is legal to sell something then it should be legal to promote it - now strengthened by this unique exception. But a ban on tobacco advertising has been seen to be coming for a long time and all have made provisions for Its extinction. We are advocates for our clients and, like a barrister, if we become convinced that the cause is not good then it is our duty to refuse to take on the task.

Many agencies have refused to accept tobacco clients and many more agency staff have declined the opportunity to work on one. An advertising man was once asked whether he con- sidered advertising to be moral and he , wisely, answered that advertising was like the telephone, nei- ther moral nor immoral: it depended what It was being used for, and how it was used. When it is no longer used to promote tobacco most of us in advertising agencies wifi be happier.

Instead of listening to soothing music, recorded messages or silence while waiting to be connected, people can soon expect to be bom- barded with telephone commercials promoting the goods or services of the company they are calling. In the US, it is estimated that a business person spends 60 hours a year on hold, and marketers are real- ising this represents an opportunity to sell to a captive audience. Until now, httle imagination has been applied to using this dead time.

Most companies leave callers dan- gling In a void, while others offer well-worn tunes, such, as Green Sleeves, or play a message saying the call win be answered as soon as possible. Some US companies plug callers into a radio station. However, a number of US compa- nies are installing systems- that use on-hold time to promote products or services, to deliver information about special offers, or to tell callers about their corporate philosophy.

Promos Hotel, whose hotel c hains include Embassy Suites, uses a similar system to advertise its brands and to promote tie-ins with partners such as Hertz car rental. Ron Kirkpatrick, chairman and chief executive of Accurate Commu- nications, says up to 20 per cent of callers who hear an on-hold adver- tisement make a purchase or deri- sion based on the' information they hear.

But Accurate Communica- tions mixes tapes in its studios, then downloads them into digital receiv- ers in its customers telephone systems, enabling companies to change their messages m minutes of waiting for a new tape. Mr Kirkpatrick says this has attracted the emergency services, which are becoming overwhelmed with calls from people with cellular phones when there are traffic acci- dents or fires.

Accurate Communica- tions is working on an on-hold sys- tem that would tell callers when such incidents bad already been reported, leaving dispatchers free to deal with other incidents. But it is adopting a different marketing approach to oth- ers in the industry in an attempt to woo British parents wearied by US- style hype. To be successful, HIT will have to challenge these nmnpanies head-on. Although an established name in the TV business and in the-.

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No investor is spared from investing blunders but everyone can learn more from failures than successes. It is important to reiterate, Forex trading is not the easiest way to amass riches, as one has to be prepared to take the plunge before reaping the fruits of the labor. Success with Forex trading will not happen overnight. There are no shortcuts to Forex trading. Not even the heavens can guarantee claims of a get-rich-quick scheme as one would think.

Finding the best Forex trading broker in has never been, is, and will never be, an easy feat. Conducting thorough research before picking the right Forex broker is critical. Going through all the brokers in the market can be a daunting task and entrusting currency trading to any entity requires a tremendous amount of trust and confidence. Electronic Communications Network ECNs is an alternative trading system which digitally links market participants in order to buy or sell currencies, stocks, and other financial instruments with one another.

Today there are many excellent ECN brokers on the Forex market. ECNs flash orders through a consolidated quote system which the public can view. Such entities rule out tapping a third party to facilitate transactions aside from helping investors make immediate and automatic transactions beyond trading hours.

Conversely, Market Makers display buy and sell rates for a guaranteed number of shares in a move to compete directly for customer order flows. To stay in the game, Market Makers Forex brokers must keep both bid and ask prices within a predetermined spread. Specifically, a market surfaces when the designated market maker sets the bidding price and offers over time, to make sure there are ample buyers and sellers for every market order.

Market makers act as catalysts in the secondary market for beefing up liquidity and, subsequently, long-term growth in the currency market. DD provides an avenue for easy access to the interbank market, a market for trading foreign currencies. This is a venue for currency dealers at a bank or financial institution to do business. Banks and financial firms also have DDs in order to facilitate trades in securities and other financial instruments outside the currency market.

It is typical to have many DDs across the globe. DMA is an electronic trading venue which allows investors to utilize financial instruments and order books of an exchange that processes securities transactions on a regular basis. Sell-side entities usually offer this type of market, which requires using an intricate technology. Although trades are swiftly made, an intermediary Forex trading brokerage company handles the transaction. In the s, brokerage firms shifted to using DMA instead of market making quotes for trade processing.

Review the full list of the best DMA Forex companies in order to compare them. NDD states that, if no dealing desk system is available, positions are immediately offset and then sent to the interbank. STP is a process embarked by financial firms to boost the processing time of any transaction without any human involvement.

The use of STP dates back to the early s. Forex market participants may select from a wide range of currency pairs. Experts advise traders, especially new ones, to pick and concentrate on certain currency pairs. The most common currency pairs used by traders are categorized as major pairs. Although there are many currency pairs available, starting out with one or a few pairs at a time can make trading easier.

This allows traders to be more focused in analyzing data for a given a pair. Initial Deposit — When it began, only big banks, companies, and wealthy investors had access in FX market. Forex companies offer several types of trading accounts as well. Of course, any deposit or withdrawal made into an account will require a fee payment.

Debit and credit card payments are common, as well as online payment systems such as PayPal, Skrill, and Neteller. Clients may use the same method for both deposit and withdrawal. Through commissions and spreads. A commission is a fee levied by a Forex broker, while the difference between the bid and ask price is called spread.

Some Forex brokers insist that they solely rely on spreads to earn profits. Spread can either be floating or fixed. To lure clients, most Forex brokers claim that their spreads on major pairs are fixed. Leverage — Leverage allows traders expand their trading power. In essence, brokers lend a certain amount to bolster their potential gain. Hence, investors are advised to utilize this investment strategy with vigilance and caution. Margin — A relatively new concept for Forex investors, a margin account is akin to equity markets.

It is a brokerage account wherein the customer borrows money from its broker in order to continue currency trading. In addition to flexible and competitive trading conditions, traders today are after ease and convenience when depositing and withdrawing funds. A good Forex broker provides clients with various payment options, allowing them to choose the one that suits their needs. Debit and credit cards, as well as bank wire options, are just a few of the default payment options used by traders.

Again, thanks to technological advancements, a number of electronic payment systems have emerged. PayPal , Skrill , Neteller , and Webmoney are the most commonly used methods. When selecting a payment option, consider the commission or fee charged by the mentioned payment systems.

It is also vital that the safety and security of funds are taken into consideration. Forex trading brokers, at times, may waive any deposit fee to encourage their clients to cash in more money. To establish trust and loyalty, the best FX companies have also focused on the importance of having a very good customer service department.

Whether handling an inquiry or a complaint, they should be able to provide quick response and resolve the matter as soon as possible. The majority of online best Forex brokers are now stepping up and providing a hour customer support. In order to meet the needs of their clients well, and to achieve maximum customer satisfaction, Forex brokers meticulously train their customer agents for weeks.

The customer service representatives should be very knowledgeable about Forex trading, and the products or services being offered, in order to successfully deal with problems encountered by a client and suggest possible solutions. Aside from remaining composed and organized, one must also be a good listener to be a good Forex customer service representative. They should not interrupt the client in the middle of a call. A good rule of conversation is to let the customer do all the talking at first.

Then the representative can assume the role of a troubleshooter by asking the right questions pertaining to the concern and figure out how it can be solved. Brokers should ensure that it is easy for a customer to call or in some instances, send an email to a customer service agent, and it should not involve too much time just to get through to an agent. Clients tend to be impatient, especially when they have questions or concerns.

It would be a bonus if the Forex broker could provide some sort of entertainment to kill boredom while customers are waiting to be attended to. The best Forex broker in year should be a registered and licensed entity before it begins to operate and advertise their business in a specific area. Governments, through financial regulators, have different sets of rules and regulations, which a licensed or registered entity should comply with.

Regulators secure the global market by inspecting companies and firms, and probing illicit activities, if any. Forex brokers indicate on their corporate website which regulator and entity supervises their activities. It also provides education to industry players for them to be more knowledgeable about their duties and all regulations.

The futures and options markets in the U. Formed in , the commission oversees financial firms involved in derivatives markets. Their mission is to maintain transparent, competitive, and financially sound markets to protect the public from fraud and manipulation. Anchored on fairness, integrity, and transparency, this non-profit organization is tasked to enforce guidelines on business conduct among investment dealers in Canada.

A regulating entity in the United Kingdom, the Financial Conduct Authority FCA supervises almost 60, financial services firms and institutions in the country. Check out best FCA Forex brokers on our website. Created in , the ASIC serves as the corporate, markets, and financial services regulator mandated to enforce laws and beef up a healthy financial system for investors and individuals in Australia.

The regulator is tasked to supervise banks, insurance companies, dealers, and exchanges in Switzerland. The FSA handles the oversight of private entities, the development of rules and policies, the creation of standards, and compliance with guidelines. A Forex trading platform is where FX traders place trades, and read trading data.

Simply put, a trading platform serves as the bridge between traders and the Forex market. A good trading platform should be easy to navigate, can provide details including charts, pricing, and trading analysis, and has an interface where traders can enter orders which will be processed by the Forex broker.

Also, software can usually be installed with various operating systems such as Linux, Mac, and Windows, although some firms offer web-based trading platforms which can be run using Java, a high-level and widely used computer programming language. Thanks to advancements in technology, and Forex brokers that step up their game, trading platforms have adjusted better to the fast-paced world.

These platforms, which are usually offered by Forex brokers for free, serve as an avenue for traders to open, close, and manage positions via an intermediary. An ideal platform must be easy to comprehend, visually appealing, and present numerous tools available to traders. It should also enable investors to place orders with ease, as well as include charting instruments, the latest quotes, and relevant news feeds.

Lastly, the user must be able to easily configure settings in that platform. Forex brokers typically offer free demo accounts before a client opens an account and dives in into the actual currency trading, which allows one to get the feel of using that software before beginning to trade. It is essential to be acquainted with the features and how to use the trading platform without risking any money while learning the basics.

Practice makes perfect. Introduced in , both are programs developed by MetaQuotes Software for trading currencies via the internet. Every platform has its own configuration but all of these have nearly the same features such as Forex prices, technical analysis instruments, drawing tools, news feeds, and charts. Before getting into the currency market, it is important to know if the broker offers the trading platform free of charge, otherwise there will be an additional rate for utilizing the program.

Learn more about the platform, to understand if it allows chart trading, if the order interface presents options, if data can be easily accessed through the software, if strategy backtesting is permitted, and if it has an API enabling a trader to incorporate more programming or install more software.

This can help you be sure about what is offered and how the broker serves its customers. And, remember to not immediately believe everything you read online, it is important to double check the accuracy of information read on these online articles. Is that broker reliable or unscrupulous? As certain brokers may attempt to use these methods to attract more clients into the company or hire marketing people to boost their image to potential customers, you should always do a very thorough research.

Forex trading brokers should always let the client handle their own Forex trading. If the Forex trading broker determines or limits the amount of money a client can take, this is definitely a red flag that they may not be a reputable or honest broker.

What if that client has a margin account and sustained losses because prices went too steep? If the trader has no power over his own account, the broker can simply liquidate position on a margin call at a lower price. There are certain acts that are illegal in Forex trading, such as sniping and hunting.

These acts involve a broker by purchasing or selling close to preset points ahead of time. This illicit activity is difficult to detect, so it is vital to talk to other traders in order to prevent this from happening. Currently, there is no list containing the names of brokers that commit sniping and hunting, so it is another important reason to do careful research.

If the Forex broker is engaged in other criminal acts, such as corruption, money laundering, or sale of illegal arms or drugs, this is obviously a broker to avoid. Should a Forex broker be caught by law enforcement, all money invested with that broker could be seized and all investments would be lost.

There has been a growing number of Forex rating and review websites available online in As mentioned earlier, due diligence is essential before beginning any kind of investment. No one has ever wanted to have their hard-earned money disappear.

However, sadly, this has been the case in the FX market for quite a while now. The number of Forex companies entering the market are climbing in , and many of them are not entirely trustworthy. They hype their products and services through marketing and advertising, and wait for their targets to fall into their trap. Those new to the Forex trading market are the usual victims, and this is what TopBrokers. By providing only top-quality and reliable reviews, TopBrokers.

The team behind our portal carefully selects the Forex companies that are included on their list. In addition to providing basic details about account types, trading platforms, payment methods, and regulatory compliance, reviews from seasoned traders are also available on their website to provide newbies with helpful insights about the essential qualities of a Forex broker.

You can check all customer reviews of Forex brokers in on our website. The team is aware that, for a long time, it has been a practice of some Forex companies to hire people to write fake and misleading reviews. Users who create spam reviews will receive a warning and possibly be banned from posting to the website.

As you shop around for the best Forex brokers, you may want to explore some of the great Forex broker bonuses that are available. But, be cautious when temptation hits, because you still need to ensure that you are working with a highly reputable and trustworthy Forex broker and not being blinded by certain perks that may be offered.

It can be smart to get outside financial advice from a trusted advisor before diving into Forex trading. Make sure that you are properly equipped with knowledge about investing, specifically with Forex, and that you are not jeopardizing your financial health and your personal goals. Unfortunately, any time you invest, success is not guaranteed. What you can do is equip yourself and be prepared, and fully understand the benefits and risks of Forex trading. A top Forex broker will help you to avoid many of the potential pitfalls, and this should be evident in any reviews that you find in your research.

New traders need to be especially careful about ensuring their trading is stable, being properly disciplined to closely follow the market, making trades at the right times, and not overly trusting automated systems that may be making your trades - make your trades manually rather than using some of the automated technology until you learn the intricacies that will protect you. Your broker should be helping you to keep your money safe. Trades should be executed promptly and accurately.

When you learn more about how brokers keep liquidity high and keep the market active, you will begin to understand the best times for trades, how to watch for widening spread, and how to manage your investment to keep it as stable--and growing--as possible. Your broker should demonstrate that you are valuable as a client and you should feel that you can trust your Forex broker to help you protect and grow your investment.

Of course there are brokers who merely want to gain more profit by employing illegal schemes. But earning more money at the expense of clients is unforgivable. Engaging in any illicit act may put a broker in danger as that perpetrator can face administrative charges or criminal cases or his license may also be revoked by financial regulators.

By doing thorough due diligence, a trader can learn to spot and distinguish the differences between respectable and fraudulent brokers. It is important to always find out whether or not any complaints have been filed against the broker. If possible, look into that case and get in touch with the user to verify that complaint. It is also crucial to read and scrutinize every detail of documents and agreements before signing any contract and opening an account with a Forex trading broker.

Contracts are in place to help a potential trader to understand provisions of the contract and contingencies in case of unfortunate events. Start small. Many Forex experts encourage clients to begin trading currencies with a small capital. When new traders start this way, withdrawing funds from their accounts after at least a month can help determine if it is wise to continue to conduct transactions with the broker. A delay in withdrawal is sometimes the issue. If this issue does ever arise, the best course of action is to first discuss it with the broker.

However, if the same problem continues to occur, it may be time to entrust money to another Forex trading service provider. Have an investment plan, and stick to it. Make sure your expectations are reasonable. It attracts both good and bad entities.

That is why one needs to practice due diligence in choosing the most suitable Forex broker in order to understand the nitty-gritty of currency trading. Checking the compiled list of TopBrokers. The team running TopBrokers. Given its large trading volume, investing any cash may result in either significant gain or substantial loss.

Therefore, it is highly advised to have an emergency cushion before investing any amount of money. Never invest more than you can afford to lose. Forex investing is about saving up for the rainy days. An individual should not embark on any business venture, investment, or make long-term financial plans if he or she does not have an emergency fund.

Prior to investing, individuals should set aside a portion of their income, enough to cover daily expenses for three months at the very least, and one year at most, in case of any unforeseen circumstances such as job loss or medical emergency. Again, no emergency fund, no investment. Gagamitin ko pa rin ang Forex and narecommend ko na rin. Kaming lahat dito na mga kasamahan ko sa trabaho sa Forex din nagpapadala.

Yung website nyo maganda rin at madali intindihin ang mga instructions; straight-forward. Ok ang response nyo dahil tumatawag kayo at the same time nagsesend din ng email. Maganda ang customer service nyo. As of now siguro maisuggest ko lang is sana makapagdagdag kayo ng account since nawala yung ANZ, dahil limited lang yung bank account nyo, so yun pa lang naman, hopefully magkaroon pa kayo ng ibang account.

Ok din ang box nyo maganda din ang service, nagpadala ako ng box last year. Most likely yes i will use Forex again and irerecommend ko din kayo. I've known Forexworld many years ago and keep on patronizing the services offered with love to all filipino's who keep on sharing blessings to their families and love ones all over the world Just wondering, aside from 2 diff. Excellent service from the first email enquiry to the delivery of the boxes to my home and then pick-up and delivery to Cagayan de Oro.

Every email was replied to promptly and my goods arrived complete and undamaged. Highly recommended service and delivery. Thank you Forex for your 15th anniversary promo, received my 5pcs. Hubby and I using it at work. I have been with Fore for many years now and have no complaints with their Money Remittance services. Last week, I tried for the first time their Food Delivery Services.

It was great! The food was ready as scheduled when I ordered. My family was happy! I have recommended this service to my friends. Hopefully, Forex can tie up with more food chains to offer us more choices. Basta kahon door to door para sa mga love ones natin sa Pilipinas LOVE your service guys sana di masisira ang pangalan niyo.. Thank you so much for your clear and fast replies and for your words of considerations as your long standing customer!

During the years I learnt to value Forex World's reliability as something very precious because so rare in this world. I am following your instructions to easily teach money transfer to my in-laws. Please continue your good and very appreciated work. What else can I say, they've said everything! All i can say is i'm so happy that Forex Australia have the same warm and effecient service like Forex Japan Well done and keep up the good job! Consistently excellent service. Thank you for the timely deliveries.

Thank you Forex nakarating ng safe yung box ko! Buti sa Forex kahit isa walang nawawala. The best! Wow,I am so impressed for your being outstanding company, trusted and excellent. My box arrived on time to my family which makes me happy and my family aswell. I can rely on you forex, means your my fav balikbayan box now The tracking of my box from the day they picked up until delivered to my love one's are all updated. Good job,well done and thank you so much.

It arrived just only 6 weeks and a half. Fantastic service all throughout our years of patronage. Thank you, guys, you made our families back home very happy as well. Special thanks to Vic for patiently waiting ang picking up my boxes. Maligayang pasko sa inyong lahat. Salamat ng marami forex..

Thumbs up to the BEST money remittance service in the world. Very good service! Box was delivered ahead of schedule. Really liked the tracking history but would have been better if the links to the photos and acknowledgement receipt works. I have been using your service for 4 years now.

You're always reliable with polite and friendly staffs. Keep up the excellent service everyone. Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. Absolutely you have an excellent service especially your customer friendly staffs. Thank you so much for your quick response in regards with my package to Manila. They received it just now God bless you!!! Am so happy for what you did.. Again thanking you guys in forex specially Philip your staff in Sydney for his efficient and trustworthy service.

I have been using Forex for over a year now to send money and boxes to my family in Cebu and would like to thank Forex and the wonderful staff for the excellent service you have provided us. My wife and family depend on the weekly cash card reload to live, and the process has never failed to deliver on time and without any problems. We will be continuing to use the service and have recommended it to our friends.

I've been a Forexworld customer for many years and I always find everyone in this firm very courteous and very helpful. Money remittance and delivery service is exceptionally reliable and prompt. Your website has also improved considerably in which information and relevant details are much easier to find and user friendly than previous.

Keep up the good work guys and I wish you all the very best in the future Forex Team you are Excellent! I have been using your service since and never tried different Company because of your excellent service ,both Money Remittances and Balikbayan boxes I am proudly adverstising your excellency to all my friends all over the world. Dearest Forex Team, Your service is absolutely incredible.. My box just been delivered and we all made them Happy. The recipient told your team that I am her daughter, they were very pleased and told me your team were very nice and kind.

Thank you very much for the excellent job. Well done! Forex Team.. Hi, I would like to recommend John Arnold Mendoza support You should be proud of his service, and I believe he is a great asset. Nevertheless, I am writing this letter to recommend him in order to show my appreciation.

Emailing is an example that takes a lot of time and effort especially on a busy company. However, often a distressed client like myself wanted to know if the money was sent, because it is for my mother's treatment. Therefore, calling or emailing would be appreciated, but I do understand once again that often emailing or calling is difficult due to lack of time.

Although, through John's service I became confident that the money would be sent in a short amount of time, because he reassured me. He also emailed me, and has professionally handled this situation by telling me that the money had been sent. Therefore, he should be given a praise, because he made a professional effort. Finally, I would like to say that the company should take care of employees like him.

His tone of voice was professional, but at the same time he has an empathic and a confident voice. This suggests that he understands and he will do his best to meet my needs, and he did. I believe that meeting the needs of the client is greatly emphasised in this company. Although, in reality it is often forgotten, due to busyness at work.

As a result, those people like John should be given a pat on the back, and this causes a chain of reaction. Everyone will be once again reminded that these values should be remembered and applied. Once again thank you and I strongly recommend his service.

Hi Team, Thank you for the Xmas Greetings to us… Let us thank you for the wonderful and safe carriage of our cartons throughout the year, from Deception Bay to, Virac, Cavinitan. Not one carton has been damaged in transit, and not one single article damaged, or broken A wonderful record, and we will be sending many more cartons after New Year.

Best Wishes to you all. This is the only company that i can trust. Thank you Forex for your excellent service. My box arrived on time and in good condition. Keep it up! Hello, I would like to express my "thanks" for your great service. Your staff have been very helpful. Last Friday I was worried that the money I was sending will not be delivered on time due to its amount. But my family able to receive it without any problem.

Your staff was very helpful and patient in assisting me. Thank you to all the staff who were able to process my request quickly. My family and i were happy about your service to us.. May you have more happy costumer to serve and satisfied of your service thank you very very much..

Thank you Forexworld we received our BB Box's in fairly good condition considering the distances they traveled to get to us here in the Philippines, good honest service, again thank you. I just wanted to say thank you to Lorenz for helping me with my remittance in the past 2days. I've been a customer of Forex World for almost 5yrs Forex Box and this is my first time to use remittance with the company.

He's good on following up and making sure that I'm on the right track. Lorenz showed enthusiasm and very keen in helping me over the phone which is a great help and makes things easier for me. Fantastic service and I will be informing my friends and associates.

Thank you so much Forex! Last Sunday, my four boxes arrived safely at Alabang to the delight of my loved ones. I'd like you to know it's not only one family that you and I make happy, there's at least 10 of them. Kindly pass on also to your Manila people my heartfelt gratitude. Keep up the good work Forex. Been a client for years. Ang daling kausap ng lahat ng staff sa Forexworld. They answer in a professional but friendly approach.

I always get direct to the point answers. I also had to personally go to their office once because of my box, but I was accommodated so well. When I had complaints, they get addressed in a few hours. My emails get replied to instantly. My boxes sent to the Philippines were all always whole, intact and sometimes arrived there ahead of time.

I get updated clearly and timely of my transactions, be it with money or cargo. Im also happy with their competitive exchange rates. Today Forex have shown that they do not only provide good service as part of their job but showed great understanding with their hearts. I really appreciate the team efforts specially today when i had a family emergency. Special mention to the follow up calls of support6 Honey for ensuring that my padala will reach my family today as they needed it urgently.

Sending money to your loved ones in the Philippines is on-going with Forex World. New Online Remitter. Forex World Australia Leader in Cargo and Remittance Services to the Philippines We have been sending your cargo 'balikbayan boxes' to the Philippines since , and now offering a wider range of services from money remittance to travel needs and many more!

Why choose Forex? Secure Cargo Forex World do not compromise on quality and security. Established for Years Family owned and operated for over 17 years. Trustworthy Trust is the hardest yet the most rewarding bonds any business can gain from a customer.

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It is important to always find out whether or not any complaints have been filed against the broker. If possible, look into that case and get in touch with the user to verify that complaint. It is also crucial to read and scrutinize every detail of documents and agreements before signing any contract and opening an account with a Forex trading broker.

Contracts are in place to help a potential trader to understand provisions of the contract and contingencies in case of unfortunate events. Start small. Many Forex experts encourage clients to begin trading currencies with a small capital. When new traders start this way, withdrawing funds from their accounts after at least a month can help determine if it is wise to continue to conduct transactions with the broker. A delay in withdrawal is sometimes the issue. If this issue does ever arise, the best course of action is to first discuss it with the broker.

However, if the same problem continues to occur, it may be time to entrust money to another Forex trading service provider. Have an investment plan, and stick to it. Make sure your expectations are reasonable. It attracts both good and bad entities.

That is why one needs to practice due diligence in choosing the most suitable Forex broker in order to understand the nitty-gritty of currency trading. Checking the compiled list of TopBrokers. The team running TopBrokers. Given its large trading volume, investing any cash may result in either significant gain or substantial loss.

Therefore, it is highly advised to have an emergency cushion before investing any amount of money. Never invest more than you can afford to lose. Forex investing is about saving up for the rainy days. An individual should not embark on any business venture, investment, or make long-term financial plans if he or she does not have an emergency fund.

Prior to investing, individuals should set aside a portion of their income, enough to cover daily expenses for three months at the very least, and one year at most, in case of any unforeseen circumstances such as job loss or medical emergency. Again, no emergency fund, no investment.

This is the very step to any investment a client has to make. Think of it as a cushion when a person falls. Financial companies offering international currency trading Forex services to private traders all over the world. To view the rating of online brokers click here.

List of the most popular brokerage companies, filtered by reputation, customer reviews, trading conditions and platform functionality. Open the updated list by clicking here. All brokers, represented on TopBrokers. Find the best Forex Broker Listing in our portal. Comment: hmm I guess this broker is comparatively strong, but I have allocated the issue which I faced when I just joined this company. Wanted to try cTrader platform but detected that there is no opportunity to choose another type of account.

Had to switch on classical MT4 platform with floating spreads and market execution. Basically, it's a very individual thing and traders decide on their own which features are the most attractive for them. Anyway, I am grateful to this broker that it is responsive and honest. For me, it's unfortunately rarely to meet such an honest broker.

Comment: Ever been a victim of investment, trading or any cryptocurrency scam, dont hesitate to reach out to Summitrecoup com to help recover all your funds. Get help while you can. I was introduced to this guys at skyline-recovery com they are the best and helped me recover all of my funds without any hassle in a week. Comment: Currency pairs have leverage of up to and this affords me a higher purchasing power to take up substantial positions sizes with my relatively small sized account.

Comment: It's a pretty decent broker. Hi Emanuel, We really appreciate you taking the time out to share your experience with us. We take pride in delivering exceptional service to all of our clients and we are happy to receive your compliments. Regards, The Exness Team. Risk Warning: Your capital is at risk. Invest in capital that is willing to expose such risks. Best Forex brokers Classic filter Constructor.

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Kazi Ruponti 17 June Disadvantages Required field. Comment Required field. RoboForex best broker. MultiBank Group. IC Markets. Vantage FX. Admiral Markets. Hantec Markets. IFC Markets. Dukascopy Europe. Dukascopy Bank SA. Fort Financial Service. Interactive Brokers. FIBO Group. FP Markets. AAFX Trading. BCS Forex. Saxo Bank.

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Overall fantastic!!! Thank you very much for the smooth and precise transaction of the pesos remittance. Every time I am surprised on how easily and rewarding is doing business with Forexworld, comparing with other companies on previous years that took them days instead of hours as you, to receive money from Australia.

Now I am glad to use Forexworld and I wish I discovered about you earlier but now I can't thank you enough for your automatic and professional work being so fast and so cheap too! God bless! Package arrived today. Very impressed with your service and will recommend to all my friends here. I can rely on Forex and this is the reason why I keep using Forex for my sea freight boxes, as I can track my boxes it is really very important to me that it will reach my family and delivered the way I want it.

Just a short note of thanks, my box arrived yesterday after the Manila team sent me a text informing me of its delivery. Thoroughly happy with the service. Have a great day. Our family got there box in Davao just before Christmas. Thank you for your great service, it made there xmas a very happy one. Thank you for picking up my Forex box.

I just want to convey my appreciation for a very impressive customer service of your staff. First of all, I have called your office to schedule a D2D pick up last week, spoke to a lady I wish I didn't forget her name who was so accommodating and flexible to organize a time beyond your normal working hours. Secondly, on the day of the pick-up something urgent came up from work so I called your office once again to inform that I won't be able to be home by so I don't mind rescheduling it for another week.

I was so surprised that again she said that she will try her best to get someone to come to my place at a later time instead. Lastly, the young man who came to my place was so polite and patient even after the fact that he had to wait for me when he could have been home himself or out with friends since its a friday night.

You guys have gone way above and beyond my expectations and will look forward to do business with your company again. Thanks again and keep up the good work. Cheers, G. Arimado NSW. We have been using Forex ever since you guys started and we are very pleased with the services. Although there's a lot of competitions out there offering lower charges but our loyalty is always with you guys. Keep up the good work!!! I heard about your company by word of mouth and from begining till end, your service has been stress and hassel free.

From the first enquiry with the gentleman in the loading dock area, whom was friendly and very helpful, to the delivery to the Philippines, that was on time and delievered in good condition and was there when was stated by FOREX. And for someone whom this was the first time to send something to the Philippines, the service was so good and will be sreading the word about the great experance i had with FOREX. Again, thank you for the delivery and when i have anything to do with the Philippines again, if i need to get plane tickets, send money or to send another box, I will be using FOREX Australia.

This is my first-time here in perth aus. Firstly, i had a problem to send a remittance to my wife thru bank-to bank. Luckily i had a workmate informed me that forex is great and reliable so i try to joined this group. Its great , the customer service reps are awesome. The box arrived to my relatives in Eastern Samar and I thank Forex for your fast and good service. Either money or box it really gets there on time. You are the best around and I definitely shall continue doing business with your company.

Much appreciated. I have been using forex for the last few years, for everything from my new 50" plasma, to my old tool set i wanted to use in the province, even a washing machine. Awsome service! We have been using Forexworld and Cebuana L'Huillier for 18mths - two years. The service is phenomenal both at the Australian end and at Pelenke Office.

The absolute best service I have ever encountered , please do not change your company philosophy. I've been using forexworld to transfer funds to PI for almost a year now and they are reliable. Money Transfer only takes few minutes to get to my family in PI. Their friendly staff are willing to assist your need. Thanking you all for your great work. Looking forward for a successful and continuing business in Keep up the good work will used again next time. We missed the cut-off for Xmas delivery, but you guys got it there anyway!

Very happy family in the Phils, and a really big thank you from us. God Bless. My first Parcel was successfull delivery to my Family. Parcell not being open good one. They said delivery Guy was very Friendly and helpfull. It was first pick on the last of 19th October And they received on the first week of December.

I'm happy with this kind of service. Thank you for being so prompt in anwering emails and inquiries. Well done. Sa mga staff ng FOREX, maraming maraming salamat sa inyo, panatag ang aking kalooban pag nag papadala ng pera sa aking pamilya. Naibsan ang aking paghihirap, pag alala at kalungkutan sa aking pamilya. Hello to the Forex Team My cousin, has acknowledged receipt of the above transaction with no problems whatsoever and would like to thank the Forex team for a great service.

Sending money to the Philippines has never been made easier. I will definitely utilise your service over and over again. I will highly recommend. Thank you Forex for keeping my box safe as it reached our house. My family is very pleased, so am I. You're the best! Hassle-free and friendly staffs.

Thank you Forex for serving us I just wanted to say a big thank you to the forex travel department especially to Pauline for taking care of my quick and hassle free last minute bookings through you guys. I will definitely recommend you guys to others and will use your forex travel again in the near future.

Thank You once again. Very good. Sa dami ng mahuhulugan ng pera, sa Forex kame. Yung mga kasamahan ko kasi sa Forex nagpapadala, Nagpadala din ako ng box sa agent nyo dito sa Tamworth, sana magkaroon din kayo ng box from Philippines to Australia. That's good. Sa ngayon wala pa naman problema, ok naman ang padala ko. Any suggestions wala pa, mag-oobserve muna ko.

Gagamitin ko pa rin ang Forex and narecommend ko na rin. Kaming lahat dito na mga kasamahan ko sa trabaho sa Forex din nagpapadala. Yung website nyo maganda rin at madali intindihin ang mga instructions; straight-forward. Ok ang response nyo dahil tumatawag kayo at the same time nagsesend din ng email.

Maganda ang customer service nyo. As of now siguro maisuggest ko lang is sana makapagdagdag kayo ng account since nawala yung ANZ, dahil limited lang yung bank account nyo, so yun pa lang naman, hopefully magkaroon pa kayo ng ibang account.

Ok din ang box nyo maganda din ang service, nagpadala ako ng box last year. Most likely yes i will use Forex again and irerecommend ko din kayo. I've known Forexworld many years ago and keep on patronizing the services offered with love to all filipino's who keep on sharing blessings to their families and love ones all over the world Just wondering, aside from 2 diff.

Excellent service from the first email enquiry to the delivery of the boxes to my home and then pick-up and delivery to Cagayan de Oro. Every email was replied to promptly and my goods arrived complete and undamaged. Highly recommended service and delivery. Thank you Forex for your 15th anniversary promo, received my 5pcs. Hubby and I using it at work. I have been with Fore for many years now and have no complaints with their Money Remittance services.

Last week, I tried for the first time their Food Delivery Services. It was great! The food was ready as scheduled when I ordered. My family was happy! I have recommended this service to my friends. Hopefully, Forex can tie up with more food chains to offer us more choices. Basta kahon door to door para sa mga love ones natin sa Pilipinas LOVE your service guys sana di masisira ang pangalan niyo..

Thank you so much for your clear and fast replies and for your words of considerations as your long standing customer! During the years I learnt to value Forex World's reliability as something very precious because so rare in this world. I am following your instructions to easily teach money transfer to my in-laws. Please continue your good and very appreciated work. What else can I say, they've said everything! All i can say is i'm so happy that Forex Australia have the same warm and effecient service like Forex Japan Well done and keep up the good job!

Consistently excellent service. Thank you for the timely deliveries. Thank you Forex nakarating ng safe yung box ko! Buti sa Forex kahit isa walang nawawala. The best! Wow,I am so impressed for your being outstanding company, trusted and excellent. My box arrived on time to my family which makes me happy and my family aswell. I can rely on you forex, means your my fav balikbayan box now The tracking of my box from the day they picked up until delivered to my love one's are all updated.

Good job,well done and thank you so much. It arrived just only 6 weeks and a half. Fantastic service all throughout our years of patronage. Thank you, guys, you made our families back home very happy as well. Special thanks to Vic for patiently waiting ang picking up my boxes. Maligayang pasko sa inyong lahat. Salamat ng marami forex.. Thumbs up to the BEST money remittance service in the world. Very good service! Box was delivered ahead of schedule. Really liked the tracking history but would have been better if the links to the photos and acknowledgement receipt works.

I have been using your service for 4 years now. You're always reliable with polite and friendly staffs. Keep up the excellent service everyone. Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. Absolutely you have an excellent service especially your customer friendly staffs. Thank you so much for your quick response in regards with my package to Manila.

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