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Cmos schmitt trigger non-investing fii

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Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. Privacy is a moving target. Featured on Meta. Announcing the arrival of Valued Associate Dalmarus. Testing new traffic management tool. Related 0. Hot Network Questions. Question feed. Accept all cookies Customize settings. The gate electrodes of transistors 12 and 13 are connected together to comprise input terminal 17 for the circuit.

Resistor 14 is a high value resistor, typically megohms. This value is selected to be much larger than the equivalent resistance represented by an on transistor. Its value is not critical. The drain of transistor 12 is directly coupled to the gate of a second P channel transistor The drain of transistor 13 is directly coupled to the gate of a second N channel transistor Transistors 15 and 16 are also coupled in series between power supply rails and their commonly connected drain electrodes comprise the output terminal 18 for the circuit.

For the operation of the circuit, refer to the graph of FIG. The abscissa represents input voltage at terminal 17 and the ordinate represents output voltage at terminal As a starting point, it will be assumed that the input is grounded to produce point 20 on the curve.

This turns transistor 13 off and transistor 12 on. The drain of transistor 12 will pull the gate of transistor 15 close to V DD and turn it off. The gate of transistor 16 will be pulled up via resistor 14, thereby turning it on. This pulls the output terminal 18 close to ground as shown at curve point In this condition, transistor 16 sinks the output to ground. As the input potential rises, as shown by the arrows on the curve, point 21 will be reached where transistor 13 turns on and this turns transistor 16 off.

However, transistor 12 will remain on, thus holding transistor 15 off, and the output will remain at zero. In the interval between points 21 and 22, both transistors 12 and 13 will be on and resistor 14 limits the current that flows therein. Also during this interval, both transistors 15 and 16 will be off, thus allowing the output to float. When the input rises to point 22, transistor 12 will turn off. In this state, transistor 13 will hold transistor 16 off and, via resistor 14, will pull the gate of transistor 15 down and turn it on.

Now, transistor 15 will pull terminal 18 close to V DD and point 23 will be reached. This state will hold as the input rises to V DD at point Thus, the transfer function produces a transition between points 22 and 23 for a rising input to define what is called the high trigger or V HT for the circuit. The actual value is:. Starting now at point 24 on the curve, where both input and output are high, the input will be moved toward low as shown by the reverse arrows.

When point 23 is reached, transistor 12 will turn on and this will turn transistor 15 off. However, since transistor 16 is off, nothing will happen at the output As before, both transistors 12 and 13 will be on in the interval 23 to 25 and resistor 14 limits the current flow. Also both transistors 15 and 16 will be off and the output floating. As the input goes lower, point 25 will be reached where transistor 13 turns off.

This permits on transistor 12 to pull the base of transistor 16 up via resistor 14 and turn it on. Transistor 16 will then pull the output 18 low to point 21 as shown. As the input reverts to point 20, the output remains low. Thus, a low trigger transition V LT is defined by the graph points between 25 and The actual value will be:. From the above, it can be seen that as long as the supply voltage exceeds the sum of thresholds for P and N channel transistors, the circuit of FIG.

It will be noted that inside the hysteresis loop output terminal 18 will be floating. Therefore, it is common practice to follow the circuit of FIG. This was disclosed in above referenced U. The latch is basically an inverter A second inverter 36 is coupled thereacross to provide positive feedback. Inverter 36 is made to have lower gain than inverter 33 so the latch can readily be tripped. The action of inverter 33 is merely to hold inverter 33 in whatever state it is forced to assume.

This action overcomes the floating state of the Schmitt trigger. In the following circuit discussions where the parts are as were described in FIG. Resistor 28 and capacitor 29 are the oscillator frequency determining components and will typically be off chip parts.

However, if desired, they can be incorporated directly into the IC. Resistor 28 is coupled in series with N channel transistor 30 which has its gate connected to its drain terminal. The voltage drop across transistor 30 will be its threshold voltage. The current flowing in resistor 28 is:. It can be seen that the current in resistor 28 will be linearly proportional to V DD. Transistor 30 in conjunction with transistor 31 forms a current mirror.

Therefore, if these devices are the same size unratioed , the current flowing in transistor 31 will be equal to the current in resistor Thus, transistor 31 will operate at constant current and linearly charge capacitor With reference to FIG. Input terminal 17 will be high at V DD and output terminal 18 will be high. Inverters 33 and 34 will cause the gate of transistor 35 to be high, thus turning it off.

Capacitor 29 will charge linearly through transistor 31 as described above and the voltage at terminal 17 will decline linearly. Inverter 36 is connected across inverter 33 to form a latch which will retain the original state of the Schmitt trigger circuit even though its output floats inside its hysteresis loop. Capacitor 29 will continue to charge until the potential at terminal 17 drops to the low trigger point V LT. At point 33 terminal 18 goes low, the latch comprising inverters 33 and 36 is tripped, and inverter 34 will pull the gate of transistor 35 low and turn it on.

Transistor 35 is made to have a relatively large channel width so that when on it will rapidly discharge capacitor 29, thereby pulling terminal 17 rapidly to V DD. However, it can be seen that the rise is very rapid. Also inverters 33 and 34 impose a transmission delay that prevents the overall feedback loop from acting too soon.

This delay can easily be made sufficiently long to permit the capacitor to fully discharge so that terminal 17 will rise to V DD. At this point, the cycle of events will repeat. It can be seen that the oscillator frequency is determined exclusively by resistor 28 and capacitor Additionally, the rise in V DD will increase the current in resistor 28 in the same proportion and speeds up the capacitor charging. The frequency of the circuit is.

The circuit is also independent of the transistor threshold voltage. In conventional circuits it is very difficult to compensate for changes in threshold voltage variation which accompany the CMOS manufacturing processes. In reference to FIGS. Any variation in this value will change the charge on capacitor 29 at the trip point It can be seen that transistor 30, which is part of a current mirror, is connected so that it develops V TN across its terminals.

Equation 3 shows that the current in resistor 28 is a function of V TN. Thus, as V TN falls so as to increase the capacitor charge the current in resistor 28 will increase in proportion to cancel the effect. Therefore, the circuit of FIG. In FIG. P channel transistors 35 and 36 form a current mirror for charging the capacitor at a constant current as determined by V DD. This circuit is the complement of FIG. With terminal 17 low, terminal 18 is low and the gate of transistor 37 is low, thereby turning it off.

Capacitor 29 will charge through transistor 36 which mirrors the current in transistor 35 and resistor The current in resistor 28 is determined as follows:. In this circuit the P channel transistor threshold will, in part, determine the capacitor charging current. The charging will continue until point 39 is reached whereupon terminal 18 goes high at V HT. The gate of transistor 37 will be pulled high by inverters 33 and 34, thereby turning it on and discharging capacitor 29 to V SS whereupon the cycle then repeats.

Since the upper trip V TH is determined by the threshold of a P channel transistor transistor 12 in this case , the action of transistor 35 on the capacitor charging current will compensate the effect of V TP variations. As was the case in FIG. While not specifically shown, the circuit of FIG. Transistors 15 and 16 along with resistor 14 are as shown in FIGS. Transistors 35, 36, and 37 along with resistor 28, capacitor 29 and inverter 34 are also similar.

However, the drains of transistors 15 and 16 are coupled to a logic array. A latch 40 is composed of a pair of NOR gates 41 and Gate 41 is driven from the drain of transistor 15 through inverter The input to gate 42 is directly from the drain of transistor