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Financial concessions

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The capital generated from private finance must be paid back with commitments of a long-term revenue stream to repay lenders and private investors, who typically demand a higher rate of return than investors in tax-exempt municipal bonds. Figure 1 depicts a common financing structure for P3 concession projects. Although a single company may bid on and develop a project, generally several companies form a consortium to develop the project.

In order to make a clear separation between the members of the consortium and the project itself, a Special Purpose Vehicle SPV or project company known as the concessionaire is generally created after the public agency has awarded the project to the consortium. The members of the consortium then become the shareholders of the SPV and their liability is limited to the amount of shared capital they have invested in the new company.

Using project financing, the concessionaire raises funds from investors and lenders based on the project's future revenue stream or "cash flows. Public agencies may provide direct funding or financing support, guarantees or other risk mitigation measures. Revenue from the transportation project or from associated revenue is typically channeled through the concessionaire. This is commonly referred to as a "cash flow waterfall" see Figure 2.

The cash flow waterfall defines the order of priority for project cash flows as established under the loan and financing documents. The FHWA Center for Innovative Finance Support is a one-stop clearinghouse for expertise, guidance, research, decision tools, and publications on highway program delivery innovations. Our website, workshops, and myriad resources support transportation professionals in the use of innovative approaches for delivery of highway projects. The FHWA Center for Innovative Finance Support's Alternative Project Delivery program provides information on contractual arrangements that allow for greater private participation in infrastructure development by transferring risk and responsibility from public project sponsors to private sector engineers, contractors and investors.

The FHWA Center for Innovative Finance Support's Federal Tolling and Pricing program focuses on the use of tolling and other road user charges as a revenue source to fund highway improvements, and the use of variably-priced tolls as a tool to manage congestion. The FHWA Center for Innovative Finance Support's Value Capture program explores strategies for tapping into the added value that transportation improvements bring to nearby properties as a means to provide new funding for surface transportation improvements.

Patrick DeCorla-Souza Patrick. DeCorla-Souza dot. Photo Credit: Image by S. Richter from Pixabay. BOT and DBO projects typically involve significant design and construction as well as long term operations, for new build greenfield or projects involving significant refurbishment and extension brownfield. See below for definitions of each type of agreement, as well as key features and examples of each.

This page also includes links to checklists, toolkits, and sector-specific PPP information. Overview of Concessions, BOTs, DBO Projects A Concession gives a concessionaire the long term right to use all utility assets conferred on the concessionaire, including responsibility for operations and some investment.

Asset ownership remains with the authority and the authority is typically responsible for replacement of larger assets. Assets revert to the authority at the end of the concession period, including assets purchased by the concessionaire. In a concession the concessionaire typically obtains most of its revenues directly from the consumer and so it has a direct relationship with the consumer. A concession covers an entire infrastructure system so may include the concessionaire taking over existing assets as well as building and operating new assets.

The concessionaire will pay a concession fee to the authority which will usually be ring-fenced and put towards asset replacement and expansion. A concession is a specific term in civil law countries. To make it confusing, in common law countries, projects that are more closely described as BOT projects are called concessions.

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Concessions in Real Estate

Financing concessions are. In finance, a concession refers to the compensation an underwriter receives for managing the sale of stocks or bonds for a company. High quality example sentences with “financial concessions” in context from reliable sources - Ludwig is the linguistic search engine that helps you to.